Ma'di prevoiced bilabial plosive /b/.
Ma'di voiceless unaspirated bilabial plosive /p/.
Ma'di prenasalized bilabial plosive /mb/.
Ma'di prevoiced bilabial implosive /ɓ/.
Predicted assimilation patterns for the English and Greek monolinguals for the Ma'di prevoiced-voiceless, prevoiced-prenasalized, and prevoiced plosive-implosive contrasts. Discrimination performance is predicted to follow the gradient TC > CG > SC, and UC will depend on the amount of overlap in the assigned category labels for the two Ma'di phones comprising the contrast.
Bilinguals' age, age of acquisition, mean self-ratings of their mastery of Greek (L1) and English (L2) (1 = very little; 5 = very well), and estimated daily use. Monolinguals' demographics are included for comparison.
Acoustic attributes of the Ma'di bilabial and coronal stimulus tokens. Descriptions of measurement procedures for stop closure, burst, and VOT durations are presented in text.
Mean percent identification (and goodness ratings 1–7) of Ma'di syllable-initial bilabial stop consonants by monolinguals and bilinguals in English and Greek language modes.
Mean percent identification (and goodness ratings 1–7) of Ma'di syllable-initial coronal stop consonants by monolinguals and bilinguals in English and Greek language modes.
Monolinguals' and bilinguals' assimilation patterns for Ma'di syllable-initial stop contrasts.
Monolinguals' and bilinguals' mean % correct discrimination of Ma'di initial position stop-voicing contrasts (standard error in parentheses).
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