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Factors affecting the use of envelope interaural time differences in reverberationa)
a)Portions of this work were presented at the 2010 spring meeting of the Acoustical Society of America and the 2011 Short Papers Meeting of the British Society of Audiology.
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10.1121/1.4793270
/content/asa/journal/jasa/133/4/10.1121/1.4793270
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/133/4/10.1121/1.4793270
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Individual (top panels) and average (bottom panel) ITD discrimination thresholds from Experiment 1 as a function of the source-receiver distance; the thresholds for the non-reverberant conditions are shown on the left of the panels. The filled symbols and solid lines show the results for the low-frequency conditions and the open symbols and dashed lines show the results for the transposed conditions. In the top panels, the symbols show the three individual threshold estimates acquired for each condition and the lines connect their means; in the bottom panel, the symbols and lines both show the average thresholds. The error bars represent the standard error of the mean (SE).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Individual (top panels) and average (bottom panel) ITD discrimination thresholds from Experiment 1 as in Fig. 1 but re-plotted as a function of the interaural coherence of the stimuli at each source-receiver distance. The data are plotted in a similar way as in Fig. 1 , but now the lines show the maximum likelihood linear fits (see text).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) Average ITD discrimination thresholds from Experiment 1 normalized with respect to threshold for the non-reverberant conditions and plotted in the same way as in Fig. 1 . (b) Average ITD discrimination thresholds from Experiment 1 normalized with respect to threshold for the non-reverberant conditions and plotted in the same way as in Fig. 2 .

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Schematic explaining the stimulus generation for Experiment 2. Trains of unit impulses with independent random jitter at the left and right ears [gray and black lines in (a)] were convolved with a raised-cosine pulse (b); the resulting pulse train was then multiplied with a 4-kHz diotic carrier tone (c). (d) shows a segment of the resulting stimulus before filtering to a 1 ERB-wide passband around 4 kHz.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Average ITD thresholds as a function of pulse rate (preliminary experiment to Experiment 2). The line and symbols show the average observed thresholds, and the vertical bars show the proportion of failed tracks. Error bars show the SE.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Individual (top panels) and average (bottom panel) ITD discrimination thresholds from Experiment 2 as a function of the envelope interaural coherence. The filled symbols and solid lines show the observed thresholds for the 80-pps conditions, and the hashed bars show the proportion of failed tracks for these conditions. Similarly, the open symbols and dotted lines show the observed thresholds, and the open bars the proportion of failed tracks, for the 20-pps conditions. As in Fig. 1 , the symbols in the top panels show the individual threshold estimates for each condition, and the lines connect their means; in the bottom panel, the symbols and lines both show the average thresholds. The long- and short-dashed lines in the bottom panel show the maximum likelihood linear fits to the 80- and 20-pps conditions, respectively. Error bars show the SE.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Schematic explaining the stimulus generation for Experiment 3. A regular train of unit impulses (a) was convolved with an exponential pulse with variable flank duration to vary the envelope slope [see dashed and solid lines in (b)]; the resulting pulse train (c) was then multiplied with a 4-kHz diotic carrier tone to produce the stimulus [shown before filtering to a 1 ERB-wide passband around 4 kHz in (d)].

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Color online) Individual (top panels) and average (middle panel) ITD discrimination thresholds from Experiment 3 as a function of the slope of the envelope flanks in dB/ms. The bottom panel shows the average thresholds re-plotted as a function of the flank duration. In the top panels, the symbols show the individual observed threshold estimates for each condition, and the lines connect their means. In the middle and bottom panels, the open triangles and solid lines show the average observed thresholds; the hashed bars show the proportion of failed tracks. The squares and circles (connected by lines) show data from Laback et al. (2011) and Klein-Hennig et al. (2011) , respectively. To facilitate comparison, the data from Laback et al. were normalized to coincide with the current average thresholds for the 12-dB/ms slope (middle panel) or the 5-ms flank duration (bottom panel); the data from Klein-Henning et al. were normalized to coincide with the current average thresholds for the 5-dB/ms slope (middle panel) or the 5-ms flank duration (bottom panel). In the middle panel, Klein-Hennig et al. data were plotted as a function of the slope in dB/ms at the -6-dB point in their envelopes. The dotted lines in the middle and bottom panels show the maximum likelihood linear fit to the current data. Error bars show the SE.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Schematic explaining the stimulus generation for Experiment 4. A regular train of unit impulses (a) was convolved with an exponential pulse with two different flank durations [dashed and solid lines in (b)]. The inter-pulse gaps in the resulting pulse train (c) were then filled in with a DC offset (d) and multiplied with a 4-kHz diotic carrier tone to produce the stimulus [shown before filtering to a 1 ERB-wide passband around 4 kHz in (e)].

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(Color online) Individual (top panels) and average (bottom panel) ITD discrimination thresholds from Experiment 4 as a function of the modulation index. The filled symbols and solid lines show the observed thresholds for the steeper (30-dB/ms) slope conditions, and the hashed bars show the proportion of failed tracks for these conditions. Similarly, the open symbols and dotted lines show the observed thresholds, and the open bars the proportion of failed tracks, for the shallower (2.4-dB/ms) slope conditions. The symbols in the top panels show the individual threshold estimates for each condition, and the lines connect their means; in the bottom panel, the symbols and lines both show the average thresholds. The long- and short-dashed lines in the bottom panel show the maximum-likelihood piecewise-linear fits to the steep and shallow slope conditions, respectively. The squares and lines in the bottom panel show the thresholds from participant LR from McFadden and Pasanen (1976) . The data were normalized to coincide with the average maximum likelihood threshold for m = 0.18 to facilitate comparison. Error bars show the SE.

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/content/asa/journal/jasa/133/4/10.1121/1.4793270
2013-04-03
2014-04-19
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Factors affecting the use of envelope interaural time differences in reverberationa)
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/133/4/10.1121/1.4793270
10.1121/1.4793270
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