Index of content:
Volume 133, Issue 4, April 2013
- AEROACOUSTICS, ATMOSPHERIC SOUND 
133(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4794389View Description Hide Description
The acoustic field of a monopole source moving with constant velocity at constant height above an infinite locally reacting plane can be expressed in analytical form by combining the Lorentz transformation with the method of superimposing complex or real point sources. For a plane with masslike response, the solution in Lorentz space consists of a superposition of monopoles only and therefore, does not differ in principle from the solution for the corresponding stationary boundary value problem. However, by considering a frequency independent surface impedance, e.g., with pure absorbing behavior, the half-space Green's function is now comprised of not only a line of monopoles but also of dipoles. For certain field points at a special line g, this solution can be written explicitly by using an exponential integral. For arbitrary field points, the method of stationary phase leads to an asymptotic solution for the reflection coefficient which agrees with prior results from the literature.
133(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4792150View Description Hide Description
Sound propagation outdoors is strongly affected by atmospheric turbulence. Under strongly perturbed conditions or long propagation paths, the sound fluctuations reach their asymptotic behavior, e.g., the intensity variance progressively saturates. The present study evaluates the ability of a numerical propagation model based on the finite-difference time-domain solving of the linearized Euler equations in quantitatively reproducing the wave statistics under strong and saturated intensity fluctuations. It is the continuation of a previous study where weak intensity fluctuations were considered. The numerical propagation model is presented and tested with two-dimensional harmonic sound propagation over long paths and strong atmospheric perturbations. The results are compared to quantitative theoretical or numerical predictions available on the wave statistics, including the log-amplitude variance and the probability density functions of the complex acoustic pressure. The match is excellent for the evaluated source frequencies and all sound fluctuations strengths. Hence, this model captures these many aspects of strong atmospheric turbulence effects on sound propagation. Finally, the model results for the intensity probability density function are compared with a standard fit by a generalized gamma function.
Point vortex model for prediction of sound generated by a wing with flap interacting with a passing vortex133(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4792246View Description Hide Description
Acoustic signature of a rigid wing, equipped with a movable downstream flap and interacting with a line vortex, is studied in a two-dimensional low-Mach number flow. The flap is attached to the airfoil via a torsion spring, and the coupled fluid-structure interaction problem is analyzed using thin-airfoil methodology and application of the emended Brown and Michael equation. It is found that incident vortex passage above the airfoil excites flap motion at the system natural frequency, amplified above all other frequencies contained in the forcing vortex. Far-field radiation is analyzed using Powell-Howe analogy, yielding the leading order dipole-type signature of the system. It is shown that direct flap motion has a negligible effect on total sound radiation. The characteristic acoustic signature of the system is dominated by vortex sound, consisting of relatively strong leading and trailing edge interactions of the airfoil with the incident vortex, together with late-time wake sound resulting from induced flap motion. In comparison with the counterpart rigid (non-flapped) configuration, it is found that the flap may act as sound amplifier or absorber, depending on the value of flap-fluid natural frequency. The study complements existing analyses examining sound radiation in static- and detached-flap configurations.