Volume 133, Issue 4, April 2013
Index of content:
- BIOACOUSTICS 
Whistle characteristics of free-ranging Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in Sanniang Bay, China133(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4794390View Description Hide Description
Broadband recording systems were adapted to characterize the whistle characteristics of free-ranging Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in Sanniang Bay, China. A total of 4630 whistles were recorded, of which 2651 with legible contours and relatively good signal-to-noise ratios were selected for statistical analysis. Of the six tonal types (i.e., flat, down, rise, convex, U-shaped, and sine), flat (N = 1426; 39.45%) was the most predominant, followed by down (N = 754; 23.35%) and rise (N = 489; 12.34%). The whistles showed a short duration (mean ± SD: 370.19 ± 285.61 ms; range: 29–2923 ms), a broad frequency range (fundamental contour ranged from 0.52 to 33 kHz), and two harmonics (mean ± SD: 1.90 ± 2.74, with the maximum frequency of harmonics beyond 96 kHz). Whistles without gaps and stairs accounted for 76.7% and 86.4%, respectively. No significant interspecies differences in frequency parameters were observed compared with S. teuszii, which is inconsistent with morphological taxonomies but confirms phylogenetic results, thus suggesting a close relation between Chinese S. chinensis and Atlantic S. teuszii. Significant intra- and interspecific differences in the genus Sousa were also observed, indicating that animal vocalization may not be limited by genetically determined traits but could also be a function of local habitat adaptation.
Estimation of fast and slow wave properties in cancellous bone using Prony's method and curve fitting133(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4792935View Description Hide Description
The presence of two longitudinal waves in poroelastic media is predicted by Biot's theory and has been confirmed experimentally in through-transmission measurements in cancellous bone. Estimation of attenuation coefficients and velocities of the two waves is challenging when the two waves overlap in time. The modified least squares Prony's (MLSP) method in conjuction with curve-fitting (MLSP + CF) is tested using simulations based on published values for fast and slow wave attenuation coefficients and velocities in cancellous bone from several studies in bovine femur, human femur, and human calcaneus. The search algorithm is accelerated by exploiting correlations among search parameters. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). For a typical experimental SNR (40 dB), the root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) for one example (human femur) with fast and slow waves separated by approximately half of a pulse duration were 1 m/s (slow wave velocity), 4 m/s (fast wave velocity), 0.4 dB/cm MHz (slow wave attenuation slope), and 1.7 dB/cm MHz (fast wave attenuation slope). The MLSP + CF method is fast (requiring less than 2 s at SNR = 40 dB on a consumer-grade notebook computer) and is flexible with respect to the functional form of the parametric model for the transmission coefficient. The MLSP + CF method provides sufficient accuracy and precision for many applications such that experimental error is a greater limiting factor than estimation error.