Index of content:
Volume 133, Issue 4, April 2013
- MUSIC AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 
133(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4792249View Description Hide Description
In this paper, a model of the harp plucking is developed. It is split into two successive time phases, the sticking and the slipping phases, and uses a mechanical description of the human finger's behavior. The parameters of the model are identified through measurements of the finger/string displacements during the interaction. The validity of the model is verified using a configurable and repeatable robotic finger, enhanced with a silicone layer. A parametric study is performed to investigate the influence of the model's parameters on the free oscillations of the string. As a result, a direct implementation of the model produces an accurate simulation of a string response to a given finger motion, as compared to experimental data. The set of parameters that govern the plucking action is divided into two groups: Parameters controlled by the harpist and parameters intrinsic to the plucking. The former group and to a lesser extent the latter highly influence the initial conditions of the string vibrations. The simulations of the string's free oscillations highlight the large impact the model parameters have on the sound produced and therefore allows the understanding of how different players on the same instrument can produce a specific/personal sound quality.
133(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4794387View Description Hide Description
In pianos, the transfer of energy from strings to soundboard and the radiation of sound are highly dependent on the dynamical properties of the soundboard. In this paper, a numerical study is conducted for various rib configurations, showing that even slight irregularities in rib spacing can induce a strong localization of the soundboard velocity pattern. The effective vibrating area can be further reduced due to the spatial filtering effect of the bridge. Numerical predictions of modal shapes and operating deflection shapes are confirmed by series of measurements made on upright piano soundboards. Simulations of radiated pressure based on measured and calculated soundboard velocity fields show that localization tends to broaden the cone of directivity and to reduce the number of lobes.
133(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4792357View Description Hide Description
Experimental techniques for investigating the piano hammer-string interaction are described. It is argued that the accuracy, consistency, and scope of conclusions of previous studies can be compromised by limitations of the conventional methods relating to key inputs; physical distortion; numerical distortion, particularly when differentiation or integration of measured signals is used to derive primary response variables; contact identification; and synchronization issues. These problems are discussed, and experimental methods that have been devised to avoid them are described and illustrated by detailed results from a study of the hammer-string interaction in a vertical piano. High resolution displacements are obtained directly by non-contact high-speed imaging and quantitative motion tracking. The attention focused on achieving very accurate and consistent temporal and spatial alignment, including the objective procedure used for contact identification, allows meaningful comparisons of responses from separate tests. String motion at the strike point and on each side of it, as well as hammer motion, is obtained for eight dynamic levels from 1.06 to 2.98 m/s impact velocity. Detailed observations of the force-compression behavior of the hammer interacting with real strings are presented. The direct effects of hammer shank deflection and agraffe string pulses on the interaction are also highlighted.