Index of content:
Volume 133, Issue 4, April 2013
- TRANSDUCTION 
133(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4792147View Description Hide Description
A shotgun microphone is a highly directional pickup device widely used in noisy environments. The key element that leads to its superior directivity is a tube with multiple slot openings along its length. One traditional way to model the directional response of a shotgun is to assume plane waves traveling in the tube as if it is in the free field. However, the frequency response and directivity predicted by this traveling wave model can differ drastically from practical measurements. In this paper, an in-depth electroacoustic analysis was conducted to examine the problem by considering the standing waves inside the tube with an analogous circuit containing phased pressure sources and T-networks of tube segments. A further refinement is to model the housing diffraction effect with the aid of the equivalent source method (ESM). The on-axis frequency response and directivity pattern predicted by the proposed model are in close agreement with the measurements. From the results, a peculiar bifurcation phenomenon of directivity pattern at the Helmholtz frequency was also noted. While the shotgun behaves like an endfire array above the Helmholtz frequency, it becomes a broadside array below the Helmholtz frequency. The standing wave effect can be mitigated by covering the slot openings with mesh screen, which was found to alter the shotgun response to be closer to that of the traveling wave model above a critical frequency predicted by the half-wavelength rule. A mode-switching model was developed to predict the directional responses of mesh-treated shotguns.
133(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4792486View Description Hide Description
This paper is concerned with experimental validation of a recently proposed method of controlling sound fields with a circular double-layer array of loudspeakers [Chang and Jacobsen, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131(6), 4518–4525 (2012)]. The double-layer of loudspeakers is realized with 20 pairs of closed-box loudspeakers mounted back-to-back. Source strengths are obtained with several solution methods by modeling loudspeakers as a weighted combination of monopoles and dipoles. Sound pressure levels of the controlled sound fields are measured inside and outside the array in an anechoic room, and performance indices are calculated. The experimental results show that a method of combining pure contrast maximization with a pressure matching technique provides only a small error in the listening zone between the desired and the reproduced fields, and at the same time reduces the sound level in the quiet zone as expected in the simulation studies well above the spatial Nyquist frequency except at a few frequencies. It is also shown that errors in the positions of the loudspeakers can be critical to the results at frequencies where the distance between the inner and the outer array is close to half a wavelength.
133(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4792355View Description Hide Description
The sound-source localization provided by a crosstalk cancellation (CTC) system depends on the head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) used for the CTC filter calculation. In this study, the horizontal- and sagittal-plane localization performance was investigated in humans listening to individualized matched, individualized but mismatched, and non-individualized CTC systems. The systems were simulated via headphones in a binaural virtual environment with two virtual loudspeakers spatialized in front of the listener. The individualized mismatched system was based on two different sets of listener-individual HRTFs. Both sets provided similar binaural localization performance in terms of quadrant, polar, and lateral errors. The individualized matched systems provided performance similar to that from the binaural listening. For the individualized mismatched systems, the performance deteriorated, and for the non-individualized mismatched systems (based on HRTFs from other listeners), the performance deteriorated even more. The direction-dependent analysis showed that mismatch and lack of individualization yielded a substantially degraded performance for targets placed outside of the loudspeaker span and behind the listeners, showing relevance of individualized CTC systems for those targets. Further, channel separation was calculated for different frequency ranges and is discussed in the light of its use as a predictor for the localization performance provided by a CTC system.