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The developmental trajectory of children's perception and production of English /r/-/l/a)
a)A portion of this work was presented in “Production and perception of English /l/ and /r/ by 4-, 5- and 8-yr-old children,” Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Hong Kong, China, August 2011.
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10.1121/1.4802905
/content/asa/journal/jasa/133/6/10.1121/1.4802905
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/133/6/10.1121/1.4802905

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Spectrogram (top) and LPC and FFT spectra overlaid (bottom) of the word “light” produced by one of the participants. The vertical line at 1.60 ms is showing the measurement location for the formant tracking.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Box plots illustrating distributions of (a) F*3, (b) F*2, and (c) F3-F2 distance for /l/ (gray) and /r/ (black) for the four age groups.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

The mean category identification of children's “light” and “write” productions judged by general adult listeners. The results for “light” and “write” are collapsed.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

The mean goodness rating for the correctly identified child /l/ and /r/ productions. The results for “Light” and “write” are collapsed.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Mean percent /r/ response as a function of F3 (the axis) and F2 (lines) for each age group.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Effect of F2 on percent /r/ response for ambiguous F3 (2000 Hz).

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Summary of findings. Marginally significant findings are presented in parentheses.

Tables

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TABLE I.

Mean accuracy and SD of /l/ and /r/ productions by each age group (%) judged by a trained phonetician.

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TABLE II.

Mean F*2, F*3, and Bark-converted F3-F2 values and SD in /l/ and /r/ for each age group.

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TABLE III.

Logistic regression models predicting /l/ and /r/ productions with F*2 and F*3 as predictors.

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TABLE IV.

Confusion matrix showing mean adult identification (%) of child productions.

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TABLE V.

Perception accuracy of identifying F3 endpoint stimuli.

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TABLE VI.

Logistic regression models predicting /l/ and /r/ responses in perception with F*2 and F*3 as predictors.

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/content/asa/journal/jasa/133/6/10.1121/1.4802905
2013-06-05
2014-04-18
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: The developmental trajectory of children's perception and production of English /r/-/l/a)
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/133/6/10.1121/1.4802905
10.1121/1.4802905
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