Spectrogram (top) and LPC and FFT spectra overlaid (bottom) of the word “light” produced by one of the participants. The vertical line at 1.60 ms is showing the measurement location for the formant tracking.
Box plots illustrating distributions of (a) F*3, (b) F*2, and (c) F3-F2 distance for /l/ (gray) and /r/ (black) for the four age groups.
The mean category identification of children's “light” and “write” productions judged by general adult listeners. The results for “light” and “write” are collapsed.
The mean goodness rating for the correctly identified child /l/ and /r/ productions. The results for “Light” and “write” are collapsed.
Mean percent /r/ response as a function of F3 (the x axis) and F2 (lines) for each age group.
Effect of F2 on percent /r/ response for ambiguous F3 (2000 Hz).
Summary of findings. Marginally significant findings are presented in parentheses.
Mean accuracy and SD of /l/ and /r/ productions by each age group (%) judged by a trained phonetician.
Mean F*2, F*3, and Bark-converted F3-F2 values and SD in /l/ and /r/ for each age group.
Logistic regression models predicting /l/ and /r/ productions with F*2 and F*3 as predictors.
Confusion matrix showing mean adult identification (%) of child productions.
Perception accuracy of identifying F3 endpoint stimuli.
Logistic regression models predicting /l/ and /r/ responses in perception with F*2 and F*3 as predictors.
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