Index of content:
Volume 134, Issue 1, July 2013
- ACOUSTIC SIGNAL PROCESSING 
134(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4809648View Description Hide Description
Multistatic active sonar systems involve the transmission and reception of multiple probing sequences and can achieve significantly enhanced performance of target detection and localization through exploiting spatial diversity. This paper mainly focuses on two signal processing aspects of such systems, namely, enhanced range-Doppler imaging and improved target parameter estimation. The main contributions of this paper are (1) a hybrid dense-sparse method is proposed to generate range-Doppler images with both low sidelobe levels and high accuracy; (2) a generalized K-Means clustering (GKC) method for target association is developed to associate the range measurements from different transmitter-receiver pairs, which is actually a range fitting procedure; (3) the extended invariance principle-based weighted least-squares method is developed for accurate target position and velocity estimation. The effectiveness of the proposed multistatic active sonar signal processing techniques is verified using numerical examples.
134(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4807567View Description Hide Description
A typical geoacoustic inversion procedure involves powerful source transmissions received on a large-aperture receiver array. A more practical approach is to use a single moving source and/or receiver in a low signal to noise ratio (SNR) setting. This paper uses single-receiver, broadband, frequency coherent matched-field inversion and exploits coherently repeated transmissions to improve estimation of the geoacoustic parameters. The long observation time creates a synthetic aperture due to relative source-receiver motion. This approach is illustrated by studying the transmission of multiple linear frequency modulated (LFM) pulses which results in a multi-tonal comb spectrum that is Doppler sensitive. To correlate well with the measured field across a receiver trajectory and to incorporate transmission from a source trajectory, waveguide Doppler and normal mode theory is applied. The method is demonstrated with low SNR, 100–900 Hz LFM pulse data from the Shallow Water 2006 experiment.
134(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4809647View Description Hide Description
This paper investigates the efficiency of a field separation method for the identification of sound sources in small and non-anechoic spaces. When performing measurements in such environments, the acquired data contain information from the direct field radiated by the source of interest and reflections from walls. To get rid of the unwanted contributions and assess the field radiated by the source of interest, a field separation method is used. Acoustic data (pressure or velocity) are then measured on a hemispheric array whose base is laying on the surface of interest. Then, by using spherical harmonic expansions, contributions from outgoing and incoming waves can be separated if the impedance of the tested surface is high enough. Depending on the probe type, different implementations of the separation method are numerically compared. In addition, the influence of the walls' reflection coefficient is studied. Finally, measurements are performed using an array made-up of p-p probes. Results obtained in a car trunk mock-up with controlled sources are first presented before reporting results measured in a real car running on a roller bench.