Volume 134, Issue 1, July 2013
Index of content:
- ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS 
Impulse source versus dodecahedral loudspeaker for measuring parameters derived from the impulse response in room acoustics134(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4808332View Description Hide Description
This study investigates the performance of dodecahedral and impulse sources when measuring acoustic parameters in enclosures according to ISO 3382-1 [Acoustics–Measurement of room acoustic parameters. Part 1: Performance spaces (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2009)]. In general, methods using speakers as a sound source are limited by their frequency response and directivity. On the other hand, getting impulse responses from impulse sources typically involves a lack of repeatability, and it is usually necessary to average several measurements for each position. Through experiments in different auditoriums that recreate typical situations in which the measurement standard is applied, it is found that using impulse sources leads to greater variation in the results, especially at low frequencies. However, this prevents subsequent dispersions due to variables that this technique does not require, such as the orientation of the emitting source. These dispersions may be relevant at high frequencies exceeding the established tolerance criteria for certain parameters. Finally, a new descriptor for dodecahedral sources reflecting the influence their lack of omnidirectionality produces on measuring acoustic parameters is proposed.
Numerical methodologies for optimizing and predicting the low frequency behavior of anechoic chambers134(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4807820View Description Hide Description
This paper presents a description of the use of simplified numerical methodologies for the optimization of the low cut-off frequency of anechoic and hemi-anechoic chambers. The anechoic chamber is modeled as a cavity with proper surface impedance boundary conditions. First, the shape of the wedges is optimized by means of a minimization-based procedure of a finite element model of such elements in a “virtual” impedance tube for a plane wave field. An equivalent surface impedance of the wedges is determined from those data. An analytical procedure is then used to determine the complex reflection coefficient for spherical waves at oblique incidence. Finally, a complex image source approach is used to predict the sound field within the chamber. The methodology is applied to two anechoic chambers and the results are compared in terms of sound decay along fixed directions and surface pressure distributions.
134(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4807508View Description Hide Description
A method for determining the complete higher-order scattering matrix of an acoustic discontinuity is developed. The method is demonstrated for a right-angled waveguide bend, and the magnitude and phase of the reflection and transmission coefficients are extracted precisely. The procedure is straightforward and based on the solutions to the Helmholtz equation by the finite element method (FEM). The consistency of the scattering coefficients found by this method is verified by their properties of symmetry, and their accuracy is established by the conservation of energy. The reliability of the new technique is further proved by means of an arbitrary sound source and by comparing the direct FEM response to the reflection matrix calculation. Some features of the scattering matrix as a function of frequency are surprising, such as the steps and reversion of the phase evolution or the complete loss of transmission of the incoming wave. The methodology detailed in this paper can be extended to other multiport junctions, such as T-junctions or size discontinuities in ducts.