Volume 134, Issue 1, July 2013
Index of content:
- BIOACOUSTICS 
134(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4807576View Description Hide Description
Simple scattering media fit scattering model theories much better than more complex scattering media. Tissue is much more complex as an acoustic scattering media and to date there has not been an adequate scattering model that fits it well. Previous studies evaluated the scattering characteristics of simple media (grouping of cells at various number densities) and fit them to the concentric spheres scattering model theory. This study is to increase the complexity of the media to provide insight into the acoustic scattering characteristics of tissue, and specifically two tumor types. Complementing the data from the tumors is 100% volume fraction cell pellets of the same cell lines. Cell pellets and ex vivo tumors are scanned using high-frequency single-element transducers (9–105 MHz), and the attenuation and backscatter coefficient (BSC) are estimated. BSC comparisons are made between cell pellets and tumors. The results show that the 4T1 (ATCC #CRL-2539) cell pellets and tumors have similar BSC characteristics, whereas the MAT (ATCC #CRL-1666) cell pellets and tumors have significantly different BSC characteristics. Factors that yield such differences are explored. Also, the fluid-filled sphere and the concentric spheres models are evaluated against the BSC characteristics, demonstrating that further work is required.
Geographic variation of whistles of the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) within the Mediterranean Sea134(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4808329View Description Hide Description
The striped dolphin is a cosmopolitan species distributed worldwide. Morphological and genetic studies strongly suggest that the Mediterranean and eastern North Atlantic populations are isolated from each other. The Mediterranean population is considered a distinct conservation unit by International Union for the Conservation of Nature experts, classified as “vulnerable.” This study describes the geographical variation of the striped dolphin whistles within the Mediterranean Sea. Recordings were collected from 1996 to 2003 throughout the basin, employing multiple platforms. Thirty-seven independent sightings with acoustic data collection were made, and 599 whistles were extracted and considered for statistical analysis. Whistle analysis enabled the identification of sub-populations of striped dolphins within the Mediterranean Sea. The acoustic diversity observed reflects the genetic differences recently found among striped dolphins inhabiting different Mediterranean regions. The results of this study support the hypothesis that gene flow reduction plays an important role in determining variation in whistle duration and frequency parameters, while ecological and social factors influence parameters of the modulation domains. The ability to acoustically identify distinct geographic sub-populations could provide a useful tool for the management of this protected species.
134(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4807828View Description Hide Description
The source level of an animal sound is important in communication, since it affects the distance over which the sound is audible. Several measurements of source levels of whale sounds have been reported, but the accuracy of many is limited because the distance to the source and the acoustic transmission loss were estimated rather than measured. This paper presents measurements of source levels of social sounds (surface-generated and vocal sounds) of humpback whales from a sample of 998 sounds recorded from 49 migrating humpback whale groups. Sources were localized using a wide baseline five hydrophone array and transmission loss was measured for the site. Social vocalization source levels were found to range from 123 to 183 dB re 1 μPa @ 1 m with a median of 158 dB re 1 μPa @ 1 m. Source levels of surface-generated social sounds (“breaches” and “slaps”) were narrower in range (133 to 171 dB re 1 μPa @ 1 m) but slightly higher in level (median of 162 dB re 1 μPa @ 1 m) compared to vocalizations. The data suggest that group composition has an effect on group vocalization source levels in that singletons and mother-calf-singing escort groups tend to vocalize at higher levels compared to other group compositions.