An example of the graphical user interface for processing acoustic data streams for each trial. The display includes the microphone signal (top panel), formants 1–3 (middle panel) and the spectrogram with overlaid formants during a speaker's production of the word, bird (bottom panel).
Mean and 95% confidence intervals of speakers' average frequencies for formants 1–3 during no-perturbation productions of /Λ/ (black) and /ɝ/ (gray).
Mean and 95% confidence intervals of speakers' responses to the F1 perturbation. Response contours for each formant are plotted as a function of time. The panels in the left column show response contours during production of /Λ/, and the panels in the right column show response contours during production of /ɝ/. Within each column, the response contours are displayed in order of increasing formant number. The onsets of significant responses to the F1 perturbation are depicted with dashed vertical lines when present.
Mean and 95% confidence intervals of the contours showing the response difference (/Λ/ – /ɝ/) for each formant. Difference contours for F1 are displayed in the top panel, difference contours for F2 are shown in the middle panel, and difference contours for F3 are shown in the bottom panel.
The list of speech stimuli used in the current study. Pairs of stimuli were phonemically identical except that one word in each pair contained the vowel /Λ/ (left column) and the other word contained the vowel /ɝ/ (right column)
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