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Acoustic and articulatory analysis of French vowels produced by congenitally blind adults and sighted adults
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10.1121/1.4818740
/content/asa/journal/jasa/134/4/10.1121/1.4818740
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/134/4/10.1121/1.4818740

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Experimental setup showing (a) ultrasound image, frontal view (left) and lateral view reflected by the 45° mirror (right) and (b) lip protrusion measurement extracted from a lateral video image (the dashed line corresponds to the upper lip protrusion value).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) Measurements extracted from an ultrasound image: (a) ultrasound image and corresponding 100-point tongue contour extracted via EdgeTrak; (b) parameters used to quantify tongue position and shape. The solid line represents the tongue contour, the dashed lines represent the triangle and the dotted lines correspond to three segments of the grid line (see text for details).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) Average Euclidean distances between vowels along the rounding, place of articulation, and rounding + place of articulation features, in the F1 vs F2 vs F3 space, in mel, for both speaker groups. Error bars are standard errors.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) Average values of within-category vowel dispersion for back vowels (/u/, /o/, and /ɔ/), front unrounded vowels (/i/, /e/, and /ɛ), and front rounded vowels (/y/, /ø/, and /œ/), in the F1 vs F2 vs F3 space, in mel, for both speaker groups. Error bars are standard errors.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) Average values of (a) range of upper lip protrusion, in cm; (b) front-back position of the highest point of the tongue, in cm; and (c) tongue curvature degree among vowels differing in rounding, place of articulation, and rounding + place of articulation for both speaker groups. Error bars are standard errors.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) Range of upper lip protrusion as a function of the range of tongue-front back position in the production of the vowels differing in rounding (upper left panel), in place of articulation (upper right panel), and in combined rounding and place of articulation (lower panel), for both speaker groups.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) Average Euclidean distances in the articulatory spaces defined by (a) lip protrusion vs front-back position of the tongue and (b) lip protrusion vs tongue curvature, for both speaker groups. Error bars are standard errors.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Color online) Average values of within-category vowel dispersion for back vowels (/u/, /o/, and /ɔ/), front unrounded vowels (/i/, /e/, and /ɛ), and front rounded vowels (/y/, /ø/, and /œ/), in (a) the lip protrusion vs front-back position of the tongue space, and (b) the lip protrusion vs tongue curvature space, for both speaker groups. Error bars are standard errors.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(Color online) Macrovariations of the “upper lip protrusion” and “tongue body” parameters in the VLAM articulatory-to-acoustic model for perceived French oral vowels, and dispersion ellipses of dominantly perceived vowels (thin line). For upper lip protrusion: solid line corresponds to less protruded lips; dashed line to more protruded lips. For tongue body: solid line corresponds to more anterior tongue body; dashed line to more posterior tongue body. Vowel labels represent the articulatory prototypes of the produced French vowels, and the solid black lines correspond to the perceived dispersion ellipses of the Grenoble dialect.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Characteristics of the 11 blind speakers.

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

Phonological features of the ten French oral vowels.

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/content/asa/journal/jasa/134/4/10.1121/1.4818740
2013-10-01
2014-04-17
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Acoustic and articulatory analysis of French vowels produced by congenitally blind adults and sighted adults
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/134/4/10.1121/1.4818740
10.1121/1.4818740
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