Click to view
(Color online) (a) Visual (upper panel) and auditory (lower panel) speech cues of the sentence “the girl loved the sweet coffee” produced by native and non-native speakers. The sample AV stimuli are available as supplementary materials ( Mm. 1 ; Mm. 2 ). (b) Percentage of the keywords correctly identified for the speech perception in noise task for English (left bars) and Korean (right bars) speakers, without (darker fill) and with (lighter fill) visual cues. (c) Visual enhancement measures [(AV−AO)/(1−AO)] compared between native English and Korean speakers.
Click to view
(Color online) Implicit association test. (a) Face (ten Caucasian; ten Asian) and scene (ten American; ten foreign) images were presented. In the congruous condition, participants were instructed to group Caucasian faces and American scenes together, and Asian faces and foreign scenes together. In the incongruous condition, participants were instructed to group Caucasian faces and foreign scenes together, and Asian faces and American scenes together. (b) IAT scores and the native boost when visual cues are available positively correlate with each other, r(17) = 0.482, p = 0.037, R 2 = 0.23.
Sample AV stimulus produced by a native English speaker. This file has been downsampled from the original format (video: 29.97 fps, 1920 × 1080, DV-PAL, 4.2 MB/s; audio: 22 050 Hz, 16-bit). This is a file of type “avi” (3.5 MB).
Sample AV stimulus produced by a native Korean speaker. This is a file of type “avi” (2.7 MB).
Article metrics loading...
Full text loading...