Index of content:
Volume 134, Issue 5, November 2013
- TRANSDUCTION 
134(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4824347View Description Hide Description
This paper provides a simple, practical definition of the coupling coefficient for electrodynamic transducers. Comparing to efforts made in previous works that assumed a lossless spring-inductor model, the definition presented here is based on a lossy mass-inductor model. Time-harmonic analysis is used to model the energy flow in the transducer. Both energy storage and energy dissipation are included in the electrodynamic coupling coefficient definition. An in-depth discussion is provided to explain and justify the derivation and overall methodology. This definition is expected to provide a useful and practical measure of the electromechanical energy conversion performance of electrodynamic transducers, both actuators and generators.
Analytical and numerical modeling of an axisymmetrical electrostatic transducer with interior geometrical discontinuity134(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4824342View Description Hide Description
The main purpose of the paper is to contribute at presenting an analytical and a numerical modeling which would be relevant for interpreting the couplings between a circular membrane, a peripheral cavity having the same external radius as the membrane, and a thin air gap (with a geometrical discontinuity between them), and then to characterize small scale electrostatic receivers and to propose procedures that could be suitable for fitting adjustable parameters to achieve optimal behavior in terms of sensitivity and bandwidth expected. Therefore, comparison between these theoretical methods and characterization of several shapes is dealt with, which show that the models would be appropriate to address the design of such transducers.
An extended lumped-element model and parameter estimation technique to predict loudspeaker responses with possible surround-dip effects134(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4820886View Description Hide Description
Lumped-element models have long been used to estimate the basic vibration and radiation characteristics of moving-coil loudspeakers. The classical low-frequency model combines and simplifies several important driver elements, predicting only a single mechanical resonance wherein the diaphragm (e.g., cone and dust cap) and the inner portion of the surround move together as an effective piston. Even if the diaphragm maintains piston-like motion with increasing frequency, the flexible surround eventually vibrates out of phase, producing another resonance whereby a noticeable “surround dip” may occur in the radiated pressure spectrum. The classical model is unable to predict this behavior. This paper explores an extended lumped-element model that better characterizes the distinct diaphragm, surround, spider, and other properties of a loudspeaker in a plane rigid baffle. It extends effective modeling to mid frequencies and readily predicts a surround dip in the radiated response. The paper also introduces a method to estimate model parameters using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer, a surround resonance indicator function, and a constrained optimization routine. The approach is validated by its ability to better predict on-axis pressure responses of several baffled loudspeakers in an anechoic environment.
134(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4824158View Description Hide Description
This article presents an inverse method for estimating the electromechanical parameters of a moving-coil loudspeaker with or without the eddy current and suspension creep effects. With known voice-coil displacement, voice-coil current, and stimulus signal as inputs, four calculation procedures for the direct problem, adjoint problem, sensitivity problem, and conjugate gradient method are involved in inversely solving the unknown electromechanical parameters. The proposed method features high efficiency in solving the direct problem through a hybrid spline difference method. It requires a small number of iterations for the computational algorithm, while offering excellent accuracy in parameter estimations. Analysis results demonstrate small differences between the estimated and measured electromechanical parameters under a variety of stimulus signals, excitation times, and initial guesses. The results are also confirmed by experimental measurements. These results indicate that the proposed method has a strong potential for estimating the electromechanical parameters of moving-coil loudspeakers.