Volume 134, Issue 6, December 2013
Index of content:
- UNDERWATER SOUND 
134(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4826178View Description Hide Description
Marine mammals are very seldom detected and tracked acoustically at different depths. The air contained in body cavities, such as lungs or swimbladders, has a significant effect on the acoustic energy backscattered from whale and fish species. Target strength data were obtained while a humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) swam at the surface and dove underneath a research vessel, providing valuable multi-frequency echosounder recordings of its scattering characteristics from near surface to a depth of about 240 m. Increasing depth dramatically influenced the backscattered energy coming from the large cetacean. This study is tightly linked to the ultimate goal of developing an automated whale detection system for mitigation purposes.
134(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4824679View Description Hide Description
Autonomous passive acoustic recorders were deployed to record sounds of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) in the southeast Beaufort Sea for periods of 30–55 days during the late summer, open-water seasons of 2008–2010. Recordings were made in three areas licensed for hydrocarbon exploration, spanning the continental slope and adjacent outer shelf, and in a shallow inner-shelf area where bowheads have been observed congregating to feed in recent decades. Bowhead sounds were counted in samples comprising 10% of each recorded hour. In mid-August and September in all 3 years, the rate of bowhead calling at outer shelf sites exceeded that at adjacent continental slope sites by one to two orders of magnitude. Higher rates of calling occurred on the slope in late July and early August than at later dates. Calling rates varied by an order of magnitude between years in the one area that was monitored in different years. The highest rates of calling occurred on the inner shelf, offshore of the northern Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula. These trends are consistent with patterns of habitat use previously reported from aerial surveys in this and nearby areas of the Beaufort Sea and with the results of satellite tagging studies.
134(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4824908View Description Hide Description
Saturn's moon Titan is the only satellite in this solar system with a dense atmosphere and hydrocarbon seas. The Titan Mare Explorer (TiME) mission would splashdown a capsule to float for 3 months on Ligeia Mare, a several-hundred-kilometer wide sea near Titan's north pole. Among TiME's scientific goals is the determination of the depth of Ligeia, to be achieved with an acoustic depth sounder. Since Titan's surface temperature is known to vary around 92 K, all instruments must be ruggedized to operate at cryogenic temperatures. This paper's contributions include an approach to infer key acoustic properties of this remote environment and the extraterrestrial environment's influence on the development of a cryogenic depth sounder. Additionally, an approach is formulated to infer the transducer's response, sensitivity, and performance when in situ calibration is impossible or when replicating key environmental conditions is too costly.