Volume 135, Issue 1, January 2014
- jasa express letters
- letters to the editor
- general linear acoustics 
- nonlinear acoustics 
- aeroacoustics, atmospheric sound 
- underwater sound 
- ultrasonics, quantum acoustics, and physical effects of sound 
- transduction 
- structural acoustics and vibration 
- noise: its effects and control 
- architectural acoustics 
- acoustic signal processing 
- physiological acoustics 
- psychological acoustics 
- speech production 
- speech perception 
- speech processing and communication systems 
- music and musical instruments 
- bioacoustics 
- acoustical news
- acoustical standards news
- reviews of acoustical patents
Index of content:
- JASA EXPRESS LETTERS
135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4828979View Description Hide Description
Clutter depth is a key parameter in mid-frequency active sonar systems to discriminate between sources of clutter and targets of interest. A method is needed to remotely discriminate clutter depth by information contained in the backscattered signal—without a priori knowledge of that depth. Presented here is an efficient approach for clutter depth estimation using the structure in the wavenumber spectrum. Based on numerical simulations for a simple test case in a shallow water waveguide, this technique demonstrates the potential capability to discriminate between a clutter source in the water column vs one on the seabed.
135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4832915View Description Hide Description
Different from speech, pitch and loudness cues may or may not co-vary in music. Cochlear implant (CI) users with poor pitch perception may use loudness contour cues more than normal-hearing (NH) listeners. Contour identification was tested in CI users and NH listeners; the five-note contours contained either pitch cues alone, loudness cues alone, or both. Results showed that NH listeners' contour identification was better with pitch cues than with loudness cues; CI users performed similarly with either cues. When pitch and loudness cues were co-varied, CI performance significantly improved, suggesting that CI users were able to integrate the two cues.
135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4832335View Description Hide Description
Measuring guided wave propagation in long bones is of interest to the medical community. When an inclination exists between the probe and the tested specimen surface, a bias is introduced on the guided mode wavenumbers. The aim of this study was to generalize the bidirectional axial transmission technique initially developed for the first arriving signal. Validation tests were performed on academic materials such a bone-mimicking plate covered with either a silicon or fat-mimicking layer. For any inclination, the wavenumbers measured with the probe parallel to the waveguide surface can be obtained by averaging the wavenumbers measured in two opposite directions.
Effects of early and late reflections on intelligibility of reverberated speech by cochlear implant listeners135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4834455View Description Hide Description
The purpose of this study was to determine the overall impact of early and late reflections on the intelligibility of reverberated speech by cochlear implant listeners. Two specific reverberation times were assessed. For each reverberation time, sentences were presented in three different conditions wherein the target signal was filtered through the early, late or entire part of the acoustic impulse response. Results obtained with seven cochlear implant listeners indicated that while early reflections neither enhanced nor reduced overall speech perception performance, late reflections severely reduced speech intelligibility in both reverberant conditions tested.
135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4835135View Description Hide Description
Perception of warning sounds, such as vehicle backup alarms, is reduced when hearing protection devices (HPDs) are worn. A cross-correlation approach is employed to detect a pre-selected warning sound and enable it to bypass the attenuation of the HPD while still attenuating the environmental noise. Computer simulation shows that the algorithm can detect the specified alarm at signal-to-environmental-noise ratios as low as −30 dB. Human subject testing of the algorithm, implemented on a modified commercial HPD, confirms the minimum detection threshold obtained in simulation, and demonstrates a 7 dB improvement in detection threshold compared with the unmodified HPD.
135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4838296View Description Hide Description
Most attention about the acoustic effects of marine survey sound sources on marine mammals has focused on airgun arrays, with other common sources receiving less scrutiny. Sound levels above hearing threshold (sensation levels) were modeled for six marine mammal species and seven different survey sources in shallow water. The model indicated that odontocetes were most likely to hear sounds from mid-frequency sources (fishery, communication, and hydrographic systems), mysticetes from low-frequency sources (sub-bottom profiler and airguns), and pinnipeds from both mid- and low-frequency sources. High-frequency sources (side-scan and multibeam) generated the lowest estimated sensation levels for all marine mammal species groups.
135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4838315View Description Hide Description
Recently, the Department of Media Technology at Aalto University offered a seminar entitled Applied Data Analysis and Visualization. The course used spatial impulse response measurements from concert halls as the context to explore high-dimensional data visualization methods. Students were encouraged to represent source and receiver positions, spatial aspects, and temporal development of sound fields, frequency characteristics, and comparisons between halls, using animations and interactive graphics. The primary learning objectives were for the students to translate their skills across disciplines and gain a working understanding of high-dimensional data visualization techniques. Accompanying files present examples of student-generated, animated and interactive visualizations.
135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4831955View Description Hide Description
This paper investigates to what extent users of bilateral and bimodal fittings should expect to benefit from all three different binaural advantages found to be present in normal-hearing listeners. Head-shadow and binaural squelch are advantages occurring under spatially separated speech and noise, while summation emerges when speech and noise coincide in space. For 14 bilateral or bimodal listeners, speech reception thresholds in the presence of four-talker babble were measured in sound-field under various speech and noise configurations. Statistical analysis revealed significant advantages of head-shadow and summation for both bilateral and bimodal listeners. Squelch was significant only for bimodal listeners.
- LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4842456View Description Hide Description
There is at present no consensus about the relative importance of low frequency content in urban road traffic noise. The hypothesis underlying this research is that changes to different parts of the spectrum will have different effects depending on which part of the spectrum is subjectively dominant in any particular situation. This letter reports a simple listening experiment which demonstrates this effect using typical urban main road traffic noise in which the low frequency content is physically dominant without necessarily being subjectively dominant.
- GENERAL LINEAR ACOUSTICS 
Scattering of ultrasonic waves by heterogeneous interfaces: Formulating the direct scattering problem as a least-squares problem135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4845615View Description Hide Description
An analytic-numerical method to simulate the interaction of time-harmonic ultrasonic waves with imperfectly bonded layered structures is presented. In the proposed formulation, elastic layers may be either isotropic or anisotropic and adhesion interfaces are replaced by equivalent continuous distribution of normal and transversal springs. In addition, adhesion imperfections are allowed to be localized in space and are modeled by a corresponding local reduction in spring constants. The resulting direct scattering problem is formulated as a least-squares problem and solved accordingly. The formulation was extended for three different cases: Scattering from imperfectly bonded half-spaces, scattering from imperfectly bonded layered structures and scattering from imperfectly bonded layered plates immersed in acoustic fluid, and numerical simulations corresponding to each one of these cases are presented. The simulations indicate that the method is capable of capturing the scattering resulting from the interaction of ultrasonic waves with defective bonds as well as indicate that ultrasound has the potential of revealing the presence of defective bonds and interfacial heterogeneities.
135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4835915View Description Hide Description
The far-field radiation originating from a finite-length pipe is well studied, especially for steady-state conditions. However, because all physical systems do not begin in steady state, these radiation characteristics are only valid after the transient portion of the solution has decayed. Understanding transient radiation characteristics may be important (particularly for systems transmitting very short-duration signals), as they can differ quite significantly. A numerical complication to this problem involves dealing with a sharp corner in the domain of interest. While many numerical studies have attempted to couple solutions from the domains inside and outside a pipe, the analysis presented in this work treats the computational domain as a single region by expressing the entire physical domain as a map from a simple rectangular domain in generalized curvilinear coordinates. This method will be introduced in detail and general results of transient radiation will be presented for an infinitely baffled, finite-length pipe using the finite-difference method expressed in generalized curvilinear coordinates. Comparison will be made to previous results [P. Stepanishen and R. A. Tougas, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 93, 3074–3084 (1993)] that used a semi-analytic approach with certain assumptions.
- NONLINEAR ACOUSTICS 
Experimental investigation of acoustic streaming in a cylindrical wave guide up to high streaming Reynolds numbers135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4837855View Description Hide Description
Measurements of streaming velocity are performed by means of Laser Doppler Velocimetry and Particle Image Velociimetry in an experimental apparatus consisting of a cylindrical waveguide having one loudspeaker at each end for high intensity sound levels. The case of high nonlinear Reynolds number is particularly investigated. The variation of axial streaming velocity with respect to the axial and to the transverse coordinates are compared to available Rayleigh streaming theory. As expected, the measured streaming velocity agrees well with the Rayleigh streaming theory for small but deviates significantly from such predictions for high . When the nonlinear Reynolds number is increased, the outer centerline axial streaming velocity gets distorted towards the acoustic velocity nodes until counter-rotating additional vortices are generated near the acoustic velocity antinodes. This kind of behavior is followed by outer streaming cells only and measurements in the near wall region show that inner streaming vortices are less affected by this substantial evolution of fast streaming pattern. Measurements of the transient evolution of streaming velocity provide an additional insight into the evolution of fast streaming.
- AEROACOUSTICS, ATMOSPHERIC SOUND 
135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4845355View Description Hide Description
The long-range propagation of infrasound from a surface explosion with an explosive yield of about 17.6 t TNT that occurred on June 16, 2008 at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR) in the western United States is simulated using an atmospheric model that includes fine-scale layered structure of the wind velocity and temperature fields. Synthetic signal parameters (waveforms, amplitudes, and travel times) are calculated using parabolic equation and ray-tracing methods for a number of ranges between 100 and 800 km from the source. The simulation shows the evolution of several branches of stratospheric and thermospheric signals with increasing range from the source. Infrasound signals calculated using a G2S (ground-to-space) atmospheric model perturbed by small-scale layered wind velocity and temperature fluctuations are shown to agree well with recordings made by the dense High Lava Plains seismic network located at an azimuth of 300° from UTTR. The waveforms of calculated infrasound arrivals are compared with those of seismic recordings. This study illustrates the utility of dense seismic networks for mapping an infrasound field with high spatial resolution. The parabolic equation calculations capture both the effect of scattering of infrasound into geometric acoustic shadow zones and significant temporal broadening of the arrivals.
Comparison of acoustic and seismic excitation, propagation, and scattering at an air-ground interface containing a mine-like inclusiona)135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4835895View Description Hide Description
Finite element methods are utilized to model and compare the use of both a remote loudspeaker and a vertical shaker in the generation of sound and shear and interface waves in an elastic solid containing an imbedded elastic scatterer, which is resonant. Results for steady state and transient insonification are presented to illustrate excitation, propagation, and scattering mechanisms and effects. Comparisons of acoustic and vibratory excitation of the solid interface are made, with a view towards remote sensing of induced vibratory motion through optical measurement of the ground interface motion above the imbedded inclusion. Some advantages of the acoustic excitation method for exciting plate mode resonances in the target are observed.
Heuristic approximations for sound fields produced by spherical waves incident on locally and non-locally reacting planar surfaces135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4836275View Description Hide Description
The classic Weyl–van der Pol (WVDP) formula is a well-known asymptotic solution for accurately predicting sound fields above a locally reacting ground surface. However, the form of the WVDP formula is inadequate for predicting sound fields in the vicinity of non-locally reacting surfaces; a correction term is often required in the formula to provide accurate numerical solutions. Even with this correction, there is a singularity in the diffraction wave term when the source is located directly above or below the receiver. This paper explores a heuristic method to remove this singularity and suggests an analytical form comparable to the WVDP formula. This improved formula offers a physically interpretable solution and allows for accurate predictions of the total sound field above locally and non-locally reacting surfaces for all geometrical configurations.
135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4836135View Description Hide Description
Wind turbine (WT) sound annoys some people even though the sound levels are relatively low. This could be because of the amplitude modulated “swishing” characteristic of the turbine sound, which is not taken into account by standard procedures for measuring average sound levels. Studies of sound immission from WTs were conducted continually between 19 August 2011 and 19 August 2012 at two sites in Sweden. A method for quantifying the degree and strength of amplitude modulation (AM) is introduced here. The method reveals that AM at the immission points occur under specific meteorological conditions. For WT sound immission, the wind direction and sound speed gradient are crucial for the occurrence of AM. Interference between two or more WTs could probably enhance AM. The mechanisms by which WT sound is amplitude modulated are not fully understood.
135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4836295View Description Hide Description
Urban courtyards can be regarded as open cavities in the urban area, in which resonances can be excited by waves generated in the neighboring streets. The aim of the present work is to experimentally and numerically investigate low frequency resonance phenomena in these configurations. Experiments are carried out in a scale model and a numerical study is performed with a coupled modal-finite elements method. The method enables the three-dimensional modeling of the acoustic field and thus to take into account the interactions between the courtyard and the street canyon that occur above the roof level, a particular characteristic of wave propagation in urban areas. The attention is focused on two aspects, the amplification of the sound level inside the courtyard and the acoustic attenuation in the street due to resonances. Experimental and numerical results are in good agreement and show a strong resonant behavior of these configurations.
135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4835955View Description Hide Description
This paper describes a numerical method for simulating far-field scattering from small regions of inhomogeneous temperature fluctuations. Such scattering is of interest since it is the mechanism by which acoustic wind velocity profiling devices (Doppler SODAR) receive backscatter. The method may therefore be used to better understand the scattering mechanisms in operation and may eventually provide a numerical test-bed for developing improved SODAR signals and post-processing algorithms. The method combines an analytical incident sound model with a k-space model of the scattered sound close to the inhomogeneous region and a near-to-far-field transform to obtain far-field scattering patterns. Results from two test case atmospheres are presented: one with periodic temperature fluctuations with height and one with stochastic temperature fluctuations given by the Kolmogorov spectrum. Good agreement is seen with theoretically predicted far-field scattering and the implications for multi-frequency SODAR design are discussed.
135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4835975View Description Hide Description
A tonal thickness noise and loading noise model of rotating blades has been developed as an extension of the exact frequency-domain solutions for rotating monopole and dipole point sources. The present model has two advantages over the previous methods and models for noise prediction. The first is the unified expression for sources in subsonic and supersonic rotation even at rest. The second is that the present model has no limit on the location of the observer and no interpolation error. Two test cases are carried out to validate the present model and emphasize its advantage at the noise prediction for sources in supersonic rotation. Moreover, as a specified application of the present model for the rotating blades whose tip radius is acoustically compact, acoustic energy distribution at different frequencies and in different directions is analyzed. Result shows that the acoustic energy of acoustically compact rotating blades is mainly concentrated at the source frequency while propagating along the axial direction, leaving the rest propagating along the radial direction at the other frequencies.
135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4835875View Description Hide Description
Acoustic travel-time tomography of the atmosphere is a nonlinear inverse problem which attempts to reconstruct temperature and wind velocity fields in the atmospheric surface layer using the dependence of sound speed on temperature and wind velocity fields along the propagation path. This paper presents a statistical-based acoustic travel-time tomography algorithm based on dual state-parameter unscented Kalman filter (UKF) which is capable of reconstructing and tracking, in time, temperature, and wind velocity fields (state variables) as well as the dynamic model parameters within a specified investigation area. An adaptive 3-D spatial-temporal autoregressive model is used to capture the state evolution in the UKF. The observations used in the dual state-parameter UKF process consist of the acoustic time of arrivals measured for every pair of transmitter/receiver nodes deployed in the investigation area. The proposed method is then applied to the data set collected at the Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg, Germany, as part of the STINHO experiment, and the reconstruction results are presented.