Index of content:
Volume 135, Issue 1, January 2014
- BIOACOUSTICS 
Combining whistle acoustic parameters to discriminate Mediterranean odontocetes during passive acoustic monitoring135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4845275View Description Hide Description
Acoustic observation can complement visual observation to more effectively monitor occurrence and distribution of marine mammals. For effective acoustic censuses, calibration methods must be determined by joint visual and acoustic studies. Research is still needed in the field of acoustic species identification, particularly for smaller odontocetes. From 1994 to 2012, whistles of four odontocete species were recorded in different areas of the Mediterranean Sea to determine how reliably these vocalizations can be classified to species. Recordings were attributed to species by simultaneous visual observation. The results of this study highlight that the frequency parameters, which are linked to physical features of animals, show lower variability than modulation parameters, which are likely to be more dependent on complex eco-ethological contexts. For all the studied species, minimum and maximum frequencies were linearly correlated with body size. DFA and Classification Tree Analysis (CART) show that these parameters were the most important for classifying species; however, both statistical methods highlighted the need for combining them with the number of contour minima and contour maxima for correct classification. Generally, DFA and CART results reflected both phylogenetic distance (especially for common and striped dolphins) and the size of the species.
High resolution acoustic measurement system and beam pattern reconstruction method for bat echolocation emissions135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4829661View Description Hide Description
Measurements of the transmit beam patterns emitted by echolocating bats have previously been limited to cross-sectional planes or averaged over multiple signals using sparse microphone arrays. To date, no high-resolution measurements of individual bat transmit beams have been reported in the literature. Recent studies indicate that bats may change the time-frequency structure of their calls depending on the task, and suggest that their beam patterns are more dynamic than previously thought. To investigate beam pattern dynamics in a variety of bat species, a high-density reconfigurable microphone array was designed and constructed using low-cost ultrasonic microphones and custom electronic circuitry. The planar array is 1.83 m wide by 1.42 m tall with microphones positioned on a 2.54 cm square grid. The system can capture up to 228 channels simultaneously at a 500 kHz sampling rate. Beam patterns are reconstructed in azimuth, elevation, and frequency for visualization and further analysis. Validation of the array measurement system and post-processing functions is shown by reconstructing the beam pattern of a transducer with a fixed circular aperture and comparing the result with a theoretical model. To demonstrate the system in use, transmit beam patterns of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, are shown.
Presence and seasonal variation of deep diving foraging odontocetes around Kauai, Hawaii using remote autonomous acoustic recorders135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4836575View Description Hide Description
Ecological acoustic recorders (EARs) were moored off the bottom in relatively deep depths (609–710 m) at five locations around the island of Kauai. Initially, the EARs had an analog-to-digital sample rate of 64 kHz with 30-s recordings every 5 min. After the second deployment the sampling rate was increased to 80 kHz in order to better record beaked whale biosonar signals. The results of the 80 kHz recording are discussed in this manuscript and are the results of three deployments over a year's period (January 2010 to January 2011). Five categories of the biosonar signal detection of deep diving odontocetes were created, short-finned pilot whales, sperm whales, beaked whales, Risso's dolphins, and unknown dolphins. During any given day, at least one species of these deep diving odontocetes were detected. On many days, several species were detected. The biosonar signals of short-finned pilot whales were detected the most often with approximately 30% of all the signals, followed by beaked and sperm whales approximately 22% and 21% of all clicks, respectively. The seasonal patterns were not very strong except in the SW location with distinct peak in detection during the months of April–June 2010 period.
Hearing threshold measurements of five stranded short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus)135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4829662View Description Hide Description
On May 5, 2011, 23 short-finned pilot whales, Globicephala macrorhynchus, were stranded along the coastline near Cudjoe Key, FL. Five animals (two adult females, two juvenile females, and an adult male) were transported to a rehabilitation facility in Key Largo, FL. Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) were recorded in response to amplitude modulated tone pips modulated at 1000 Hz. AEP thresholds were determined at 10, 20, 40, 80, and 120 kHz for the four females. However, the adult male was euthanized prior to testing. Short-finned pilot whales had peak sensitivity at lower frequencies than other odontocetes such as bottlenose dolphins. Greatest sensitivity was around 40 kHz for all whales, while thresholds for the two adult females were 25–61 dB higher at 80 kHz than the juveniles. Click evoked potentials were similar between the four whales and comparable to other echolocating odontocetes. Click evoked potential data from a fifth short-finned pilot whale that had stranded in Curacao showed no response. These findings add to the limited database of pilot whale (short- and long-finned) hearing studies, of which there are only two others [Schlundt et al. (2011). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 1111–1116 and Pacini et al. (2010). J. Exp. Biol. 213, 3138–3143].
135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4828832View Description Hide Description
One application of acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV), a method of converting biocompatible microdroplets into microbubbles, is to enhance locally high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy. Two objectives are pursued here: (1) the controlled creation of a bubble trench prior to HIFU using ADV and (2) use of the trench for increasing ablation volumes, lowering acoustic powers, and decreasing therapy duration. Thermally responsive phantoms were made with perfluorocarbon emulsion. Compound lesions were formed in a laboratory setting and a clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided HIFU system. Linear and spiral patterned compound lesions were generated in trenches. A larger fraction of the HIFU beam is contained to increase the generation of heat. Using the laboratory system, a 90 mm linear length spiral trench was formed in 30 s with mechanical beam steering. Comparatively, the clinical HIFU system formed a 19.9 mm linear length spiral trench in approximately 1 s with electronic beam steering. Lesions were imaged optically and with MRI. A uniform thermal ablation volume of 3.25 mL was achieved in 55.4 s (4-times faster than standard clinical HIFU and 14-times larger volume versus sum of individual lesions). Single lesions showed a 400% volume increase.