Volume 135, Issue 1, January 2014
Index of content:
- MUSIC AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 
135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4829533View Description Hide Description
Horn players have observed that timpani strokes can interfere disruptively with their playing, especially when they are seated close to the timpani. Measuring the horn's transfer function in the bell-to-mouthpiece direction reveals that the horn behaves as an acoustic impedance matching device, capable of transmitting waves with pressure gains of at least 20 dB near horn playing resonances. During moderate to loud timpani strokes, the horn transmits an overall impulse gain response of at least 16 dB from the bell to the mouthpiece, while evidence of non-linear bore propagation can be observed for louder strokes. If the timpani is tuned near a horn resonance, as is usually the case, further bore resonance interactions may be observed leading to gains of ∼26 dB from bell to mouthpiece. Finally, measurements of horn playing made under conditions approximating playing reveal that timpani strokes sounding near the horn bell are capable of disrupting horn playing by affecting the amplitude, periodicity, and frequency of the pressure signal generated at the horn player's lips.
135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4835755View Description Hide Description
Using an artificial mouth with an accurate pressure control, the onset of the pressure oscillations inside the mouthpiece of a simplified clarinet is studied experimentally. Two time profiles are used for the blowing pressure: in a first set of experiments the pressure is increased at constant rates, then decreased at the same rate. In a second set of experiments the pressure rises at a constant rate and is then kept constant for an arbitrary period of time. In both cases the experiments are repeated for different increase rates. Numerical simulations using a simplified clarinet model blown with a constantly increasing mouth pressure are compared to the oscillating pressure obtained inside the mouthpiece. Both show that the beginning of the oscillations appears at a higher pressure values than the theoretical static threshold pressure, a manifestation of bifurcation delay. Experiments performed using an interrupted increase in mouth pressure show that the beginning of the oscillation occurs close to the stop in the increase of the pressure. Experimental results also highlight that the speed of the onset transient of the sound is roughly the same, independently of the duration of the increase phase of the blowing pressure.
Vocal tract resonances in singing: Variation with laryngeal mechanism for male operatic singers in chest and falsetto registers135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4836255View Description Hide Description
Seven male operatic singers sang the same notes and vowels in their chest and their falsetto registers, covering the overlap frequency range where two main laryngeal mechanisms can be identified by means of electroglottography: M1 in chest register and M2 in falsetto register. Glottal contact quotients determined using electroglottography were typically lower by 0.27 in M2 than in M1. Vocal tract resonance frequencies were measured by using broadband excitation at the lips and found to be typically lower in M2 than in M1 sung at the same pitch and vowel; R1 typically by 65 Hz and R2 by 90 Hz. These shifts in tract resonances were only weakly correlated with the changes in the contact quotient or laryngeal height that were measured simultaneously. There was considerable variability in the resonance tuning strategies used by the singers, and no evidence of a uniform systematic tuning strategy used by all singers. A simple model estimates that the shifts in resonance frequencies are consistent with the effective glottal area in falsetto register (M2) being 60%–70% of its value in chest register (M1).