Volume 135, Issue 1, January 2014
Index of content:
- PHYSIOLOGICAL ACOUSTICS 
135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4837815View Description Hide Description
A phenomenological model of the auditory periphery in cats was previously developed by Zilany and colleagues [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 126, 2390–2412 (2009)] to examine the detailed transformation of acoustic signals into the auditory-nerve representation. In this paper, a few issues arising from the responses of the previous version have been addressed. The parameters of the synapse model have been readjusted to better simulate reported physiological discharge rates at saturation for higher characteristic frequencies [Liberman, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 63, 442–455 (1978)]. This modification also corrects the responses of higher-characteristic frequency (CF) model fibers to low-frequency tones that were erroneously much higher than the responses of low-CF model fibers in the previous version. In addition, an analytical method has been implemented to compute the mean discharge rate and variance from the model's synapse output that takes into account the effects of absolute refractoriness.
Characteristics of the 2f 1-f 2 distortion product otoacoustic emission in a normal hearing population135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4845415View Description Hide Description
Distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) fine structure and component characteristics are reported between 0.75 and 16 kHz in 356 clinically normal hearing human subjects ages 10 to 65 yr. Stimulus tones at 55/40, 65/55, and 75/75 dB SPL were delivered using custom designed drivers and a calibration method that compensated for the depth of insertion of the otoacoustic emission (OAE) probe in the ear canal. DPOAE fine structure depth and spacing were found to be consistent with previous reports with depth varying between 3 and 7 dB and average spacing ratios (f/Δf) between 15 and 25 depending on stimulus level and frequency. In general, fine structure depth increased with increasing frequency, likely due to a diminishing difference between DPOAE component levels. Fine structure spacing became wider with increasing age above 8 kHz. DPOAE components were extracted using the inverse fast Fourier transform method, adhering to a strict signal to noise ratio criterion for clearer interpretation. Component data from four age groups between 18 and 55 yr old were available for the stimulus levels of 75/75 dB SPL. The age groups could be differentiated with greater than 90% accuracy when using the level of the component presumed to originate from the DPOAE characteristic frequency place. This accuracy held even for frequencies at and below 4 kHz where the age groups exhibited similar average hearing thresholds.
Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions, threshold microstructure, and psychophysical tuning over a wide frequency range in humansa)135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4840775View Description Hide Description
Hearing thresholds have been shown to exhibit periodic minima and maxima, a pattern known as threshold microstructure. Microstructure has previously been linked to spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) and normal cochlear function. However, SOAEs at high frequencies (>4 kHz) have been associated with hearing loss or cochlear pathology in some reports. Microstructure would not be expected near these high-frequency SOAEs. Psychophysical tuning curves (PTCs), the expression of frequency selectivity, may also be altered by SOAEs. Prior comparisons of tuning between ears with and without SOAEs demonstrated sharper tuning in ears with emissions. Here, threshold microstructure and PTCs were compared at SOAE frequencies ranging between 1.2 and 13.9 kHz using subjects without SOAEs as controls. Results indicate: (1) Threshold microstructure is observable in the vicinity of SOAEs of all frequencies; (2) PTCs are influenced by SOAEs, resulting in shifted tuning curve tips, multiple tips, or inversion. High frequency SOAEs show a greater effect on PTC morphology. The influence of most SOAEs at high frequencies on threshold microstructure and PTCs is consistent with those at lower frequencies, suggesting that high-frequency SOAEs reflect the same cochlear processes that lead to SOAEs at lower frequencies.