Volume 135, Issue 1, January 2014
Index of content:
- STRUCTURAL ACOUSTICS AND VIBRATION 
Variational formulation of the Stevens-Tiersten equation and application in the analysis of rectangular trapped-energy quartz resonators135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4829535View Description Hide Description
The two-dimensional scalar differential equation for transversely varying thickness modes in quartz crystal resonators operating with thickness-shear modes is formulated into variational form for trapped-energy resonators with both electroded and unelectroded regions. A theoretical analysis of rectangular trapped-energy resonators of singly rotated quartz is performed using the Ritz method based on the variational formulation. Free vibration resonant frequencies and modes are obtained. The results show the existence of trapped modes under the electrodes. The effects of various geometric and physical parameters on the trapped modes are examined. It is also found that the classical frequency prediction given by Tiersten and Smythe from an approximate analysis using the scalar differential equation has an inaccuracy on the order of 100 ppm for the fundamental mode, significant in resonator design.
135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4836496View Description Hide Description
This paper presents the main findings of a field survey conducted in the United Kingdom into the human response to vibration in residential environments. The main aim of this study was to derive exposure-response relationships for annoyance due to vibration from environmental sources. The sources of vibration considered in this paper are railway and construction activity. Annoyance data were collected using questionnaires conducted face-to-face with residents in their own homes. Questionnaires were completed with residents exposed to railway induced vibration (N = 931) and vibration from the construction of a light rail system (N = 350). Measurements of vibration were conducted at internal and external positions from which estimates of 24-h vibration exposure were derived for 1073 of the case studies. Sixty different vibration exposure descriptors along with 6 different frequency weightings were assessed as potential predictors of annoyance. Of the exposure descriptors considered, none were found to be a better predictor of annoyance than any other. However, use of relevant frequency weightings was found to improve correlation between vibration exposure and annoyance. A unified exposure-response relationship could not be derived due to differences in response to the two sources so separate relationships are presented for each source.
Effect of situational, attitudinal and demographic factors on railway vibration annoyance in residential areas135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4836495View Description Hide Description
Railway induced vibration is an important source of annoyance among residents living in the vicinity of railways. Annoyance increases with vibration magnitude. However, these correlations between the degree of annoyance and vibration exposure are weak. This suggests that railway vibration induced annoyance is governed by more than just vibration level and therefore other factors may provide information to understand the wide variation in annoyance reactions. Factors coming into play when considering an exposure-response relationship between level of railway vibration and annoyance are presented. The factors investigated were: attitudinal, situational and demographic factors. This was achieved using data from field studies comprised of face-to-face interviews and internal vibration measurements (N = 755). It was found that annoyance scores were strongly influenced by two attitudinal factors: Concern of property damage and expectations about future levels of vibration. Type of residential area and age of the respondent were found to have an important effect on annoyance whereas visibility of the railway and time spent at home showed a significant but small influence. These results indicate that future railway vibration policies and regulations focusing on community impact need to consider additional factors for an optimal assessment of railway effects on residential environments.
Exposure-response relationships for annoyance due to freight and passenger railway vibration exposure in residential environments135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4836115View Description Hide Description
In this work, exposure-response relationships for annoyance due to freight and passenger railway vibration exposure in residential environments are developed, so as to better understand the differences in human response to these two sources of environmental vibration. Data for this research come from a field study comprising interviews with respondents and measurements of their vibration exposure (N = 752). A logistic regression model is able to accurately classify 96% of these measured railway vibration signals as freight or passenger based on two signal properties that quantify the duration and low frequency content of each signal. Exposure-response relationships are then determined using ordinal probit modeling with fixed thresholds. The results indicate that people are able to distinguish between freight and passenger railway vibration, and that the annoyance response due to freight railway vibration is significantly higher than that due to passenger railway vibration, even for equal levels of exposure. In terms of a community tolerance level, the population studied is 15 dB (re 10−6 m s−2) more tolerant to passenger railway vibration than freight railway vibration. These results have implications for the expansion of freight traffic on rail, or for policies to promote passenger railway.