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Derivation of continuous wave mode output power from burst mode measurements in high-intensity ultrasound applications
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1. F. Orsi, L. Zhang, P. Arnone, G. Orgera, G. Bonomo, P. Della Vigna, L. Monfardini, K. Zhou, W. Chen, Z. Wang, and U. Veronesi, “ High-intensity focused ultrasound ablation: Effective and safe therapy for solid tumors in difficult locations,” Am. J. Roentg. 195(3), W245W252 (2010).
2. K.-V. Jenderka and V. Wilkens, “ Measurement of time averaged power in HITU fields—effects of duty cycle and target distance,” Metrologia 49(5), S275S278 (2012).
3. S. Maruvada, G. R. Harris, B. A. Herman, and R. L. King, “ Acoustic power calibration of high-intensity focused ultrasound transducers using a radiation force technique,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 121(3), 14341439 (2007).
4. K.-V. Jenderka and K. Beissner, “ Measurement of the total acoustic output power of HITU transducers,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1215, 207211 (2010).
View: Figures


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FIG. 1.

Typical rf input voltage signal in burst mode (top) and the same signal squared (middle). The bottom diagram demonstrates how replicating an integral number of cycles from the steady-state region creates a virtual CW signal. The dashed lines denote and in Eq. (3) respectively, with Δ =   −  being five oscillation periods in the given example.

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FIG. 2.

Acoustically ( , circles) and electrically ( , squares) determined effective duty ratios, normalized to the respective nominal duty ratio for a series of burst signal measurements with  = 1 ms and increasing nominal duty ratio. The results were obtained at two different input amplitudes: One yielded (CW) ≈ 10 W (open symbols) and one (CW) ≈ 20 W (filled symbols).

Image of FIG. 3.

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FIG. 3.

Ratios / (filled symbols) and / (open symbols) for a series of burst signal measurements with 30 wavecycles,  = 1 ms (→  = 0.0283) and increasing input voltage.


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Measurement of the acoustic output power of transducers in burst mode and derivation of the results to the continuous wave (CW) case reduces heating problems during power measurements with radiation force balances and absorbing targets at high power levels, but requires the knowledge of an “effective duty factor,” DR. In this work, an alternative method for determining DR is presented that allows the determination at any input voltage amplitude as it can be calculated from the input voltage rf signal in burst mode. Thus with this method, it is not necessary to apply CW signals at all.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Derivation of continuous wave mode output power from burst mode measurements in high-intensity ultrasound applications