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Volume 135, Issue 3, March 2014
- TRANSDUCTION 
135(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4864469View Description Hide Description
An exact series method is presented to analyze classical Langevin transducers with arbitrary boundary conditions. The transducers consist of an axially polarized piezoelectric solid cylinder sandwiched between two elastic solid cylinders. All three cylinders are of the same diameter. The length to diameter ratio is arbitrary. Complex piezoelectric and elastic coefficients are used to model internal losses. Solutions to the exact linearized governing equations for each cylinder include four series. Each term in each series is an exact solution to the governing equations. Bessel and trigonometric functions that form complete and orthogonal sets in the radial and axial directions, respectively, are used in the series. Asymmetric transducers and boundary conditions are modeled by using axially symmetric and anti-symmetric sets of functions. All interface and boundary conditions are satisfied in a weighted-average sense. The computed input electrical admittance, displacement, and stress in transducers are presented in tables and figures, and are in very good agreement with those obtained using ATILA—a finite element package for the analysis of sonar transducers. For all the transducers considered in the analysis, the maximum difference between the first three resonance frequencies calculated using the present method and ATILA is less than 0.03%.