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Seismic exploration noise reduction in the Marginal Ice Zone
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A sonobuoy field was deployed in the Marginal Ice Zone of the Fram Strait in June 2011 to study the spatial variability of ambient noise. High noise levels observed at 10–200 Hz are attributed to distant (1400 km range) seismic exploration. The noise levels decreased with range into the ice cover; the reduction is fitted by a spreading loss model with a frequency-dependent attenuation factor less than for under-ice interior Arctic propagation. Numerical modeling predicts transmission loss of the same order as the observed noise level reduction and indicates a significant loss contribution from under-ice interaction.
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