No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
The effect of context duration on Mandarin listeners' tone normalization
1. Boersma, P. and Weenink, D. (2012). Praat: Doing phonetics by computer. Ver. 5.3.17. http://www.fon.hum.uva.nl/praat/ (Last viewed August 10, 2013).
2. Chao, Y. R. (1948). Mandarin Primer (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA).
3. Eramela, E. (2002). “ The effect of precursor duration on tone normalization in Cantonese,” Bachelor's dissertation, the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
4. Francis, A. L. , Ciocca, V. , Wong, N. K. Y. , Leung, W. H. Y. , and Chu, P. C. Y. (2006). “ Extrinsic context affects perceptual normalization of lexical tone,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 119, 1712–1726.
5. Huang, J. , and Holt, L. L. (2009). “ General perceptual contributions to lexical tone normalization,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 3983–3994.
6. Jongman, A. , and Moore, C. B. (2000). “ The role of language experience in speaker and rate normalization processes,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing, Vol. 1, pp. 62–65.
7. Luo, X. , and Ashmore, K. B. (2014). “ The effect of language experience on perceptual normalization of Mandarin tones and non-speech pitch contours,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 135, 3585–3593.
8. Luo, X. , Chang, Y.-P. , Lin, C.-Y. , and Chang, R. Y. (2014). “ Contribution of bimodal hearing to lexical tone normalization in Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant users,” Hear. Res. 312, 1–8.
9. Luo, X. , and Fu, Q.-J. (2004). “ Enhancing Chinese tone recognition by manipulating amplitude envelope: Implications for cochlear implants,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116, 3659–3667.
10. Moore, C. B. , and Jongman, A. (1997). “ Speaker normalization in the perception of Mandarin Chinese tones,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 1864–1877.
12. Wong, P. C. M. , and Diehl, R. L. (2003). “ Perceptual normalization for inter- and intra-talker variation in Cantonese level tones,” J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 46, 413–421.
Article metrics loading...
Tone normalization has been observed in Mandarin listeners, who contrastively adjust tone recognition using context pitch cues. This study tested the effect of context duration on Mandarin tone normalization. The target tones varied from Tone 1 (high-flat) to Tone 2 (mid-rising). The preceding phrase was modified to have different durations with 160- or 200-Hz mean fundamental frequencies (F0s). The results showed that the high-F0 context elicited significantly more Tone-2 responses than the low-F0 context, even when the contexts were 125 ms. The contrastive context effect saturated with the 250-ms contexts, indicating a 250-ms critical context duration for robust tone normalization.
Full text loading...
Most read this month