Index of content:
Volume 136, Issue 2, August 2014
- ULTRASONICS, QUANTUM ACOUSTICS, AND PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF SOUND 
136(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4884761View Description Hide Description
Acousto-optic Bragg imaging is a technique that uses the interaction of light with ultrasound to optically image obstructions in acoustical fields. Existing reports of acousto-optic Bragg imaging based on transmission of acoustic fields through obstructions exhibit strong acoustic impedance mismatches manifested by poor image quality and missing details of physical structures of obstructions. In this work, the image quality was improved to exhibit detailed physical structures of an object by using an improved Bragg imaging system described in Sec. III below. This paper investigates the possibility of extending an acoustic Bragg imaging technique in transmission mode to image animal or plant tissues; a small azalea leaf is used as an illustration in this case. The Bragg image produced clearly shows the veins of the vascular azalea leaf serving as a proof of concept for cost-effective potential application of acoustic Bragg imaging of biological objects in the medical field. Moreover, acousto-optic Bragg imaging is potentially harmless to biological cells and is sensitive to density and elastic variations in the tissue.
136(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4887437View Description Hide Description
In a tube many wavelengths long, thermoacoustic separation of a gas mixture can produce very high purities. A flexible wall allows a spatially continuous supply of acoustic power into such a long tube. Coiling the tube and immersing it in a fluid lets a single-wavelength, circulating, traveling pressure wave in the fluid drive all the wavelengths in the tube wall and gas. Preliminary measurements confirm many aspects of the concept with neon (20Ne and 22Ne) and highlight some challenges of practical implementation.
136(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4887441View Description Hide Description
A few linear theories [Swift, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84(4), 1145–1180 (1988); Swift, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 92(3), 1551–1563 (1992); Olson and Swift, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95(3), 1405–1412 (1994)] and numerical models, based on low-Mach number analysis [Worlikar and Knio, J. Comput. Phys. 127(2), 424–451 (1996); Worlikar et al., J. Comput. Phys. 144(2), 199–324 (1996); Hireche et al., Canadian Acoust. 36(3), 164–165 (2008)], describe the flow dynamics of standing-wave thermoacoustic engines, but almost no simulation results are available that enable the prediction of the behavior of practical engines experiencing significant temperature gradient between the stack ends and thus producing large-amplitude oscillations. Here, a one-dimensional non-linear numerical simulation based on the method of characteristics to solve the unsteady compressible Euler equations is reported. Formulation of the governing equations, implementation of the numerical method, and application of the appropriate boundary conditions are presented. The calculation uses explicit time integration along with deduced relationships, expressing the friction coefficient and the Stanton number for oscillating flow inside circular ducts. Helium, a mixture of Helium and Argon, and Neon are used for system operation at mean pressures of , , and bars, respectively. The self-induced pressure oscillations are accurately captured in the time domain, and then transferred into the frequency domain, distinguishing the pressure signals into fundamental and harmonic responses. The results obtained are compared with reported experimental works [Swift, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 92(3), 1551–1563 (1992); Olson and Swift, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95(3), 1405–1412 (1994)] and the linear theory, showing better agreement with the measured values, particularly in the non-linear regime of the dynamic pressure response.