No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
The softest sound levels of the human voice in normal
1. Aichinger, P. , Feichter, F. , Aichstill, B. , Bigenzahn, W. , and Schneider-Stickler, B. (2012). “ Inter-device reliability of DSI measurement,” Logoped. Phoniatr. Vocol. 37, 167–173.
2.American National Standards Institute (1985). ANSI S1.4-1983. “ American National Standard: Specification for sound level meters” ( Acoustical Society of America, Melville, NY), pp. 1−18.
5. Behrman, A. , Agresti, C. J. , Blumstein, E. , and Sharma, G. (1996). “ Meaningful features of voice range profiles from patients with organic vocal fold pathology: A preliminary study,” J. Voice 10, 269−283.
, and Weenink
). “ Praat: Doing phonetics by computer
” ( Institute of Phonetic Sciences, University of Amsterdam
, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
(Last viewed March 17, 2014).
7. Brüel & Kjaer (1984). Measuring Sound ( Brüel & Kjaer, Naerum, Denmark), pp. 28−30.
10. Damsté, P. H. (1970). “ The phonetogram,” Pract. Otorhinolaryngol. (Basel) 32, 185−187.
11. Deliyski, D. D. , Shaw, H. S. , Evans, M. K. , and Vesselinov, R. (2006). “ Regression tree approach to studying factors influencing acoustic voice analysis,” Folia Phoniatr. Logop. 58, 274−288.
12. Friedrich, G. , and Dejonckere, P. H. (2005). “ The voice evaluation protocol of the European Laryngological Society (ELS) - First results of a multicenter study,” Laryngo-Rhino-Otol. 84, 744−752 (in German).
15. Gramming, P. , and Sundberg, J. (1988). “ Spectrum factors relevant to phonetogram measurement,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 83, 2352−2360.
16. Hacki, T. (1999). “ Vocal capabilities of nonprofessional singers evaluated by measurement and superimposition of their speaking, shouting and singing voice range profiles,” HNO 47, 809−815 (in German).
17. Hakkesteegt, M. M. , Brocaar, M. P. , Wieringa, M. H. , and Feenstra, L. (2006). “ Influence of age and gender on the dysphonia severity index. A study of normative values,” Folia Phoniatr. Logop. 58, 264−273.
18. Hallin, A. E. , Frost, K. , Holmberg, E. B. , and Södersten, M. (2012). “ Voice and speech range profiles and Voice Handicap Index for males–methodological issues and data,” Logoped. Phoniatr. Vocol. 37, 47−61.
21. Heylen, L. , Wuyts, F. L. , Mertens, F. , De Bodt, M. , and Van de Heyning, P. H. (2002). “ Normative voice range profiles of male and female professional voice users,” J. Voice 16, 1−7.
22. Howard, D. M. , and Angus, J. A. S. (2009). Acoustics and Psychoacoustics ( Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK), Chap. 2.
23.IEC 61672-1 (2002). “ Sound level meters—Part 1: Specification,” in Electroacoustics ( International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva, Switzerland), Chaps. 1−5.
24.ISO 226 (2003). “ Acoustics—Normal equal-loudness-level contours” ( International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland), pp. 1−18.
25. Jacobson, B. , Johnson, A. , Grywalski, C. , Silbergleit, A. K. , Jacobson, G. P. , and Benninger, M. S. (1997). “ The voice handicap index (VHI): Development and validation,” J. Speech-Lang. Path. 6, 66−70.
26. Leino, T. , Laukkanen, A. M. , Ilomäki, I. , and Mäki, E. (2008). “ Assessment of vocal capacity of Finnish university students,” Folia Phoniatr. Logop. 60, 199−209.
27. Lucero, J. C. (1999). “ A theoretical study of the hysteresis phenomenon at vocal fold oscillation onset−offset,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 423−431.
28. Ma, E. , Robertson, J. , Radford, C. , Vagne, S. , El-Halabi, R. , and Yiu, E. (2007). “ Reliability of speaking and maximum voice range measures in screening for dysphonia,” J. Voice 21, 397−406.
29. Pabon, P. , Ternström, S. , and Lamarche, A. (2011). “ Fourier descriptor analysis and unification of voice range profile contours: Method and applications,” J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 54, 755−776.
30. Pedersen, M. F. (1997). “ Biological development and the normal voice in puberty,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, Appendix 1.
31. Perry, C. , Ingrisano, D. R. , Palmer, M. A. , and McDonald, E. J. (2000). “ Effects of environmental noise on computer-derived voice estimates from female speakers,” J. Voice 14, 146−153.
32. Rosen, C. A. , Lee, A. S. , Osborne, J. , Zullo, T. , and Murry, T. (2004). “ Development and validation of the voice handicap index-10,” Laryngoscope 114, 1549−1556.
33. Sanchez, K. , Oates, J. , Dacakis, G. , and Holmberg, E. B. (2013). “ Speech and voice range profiles of adults with untrained normal voices: Methodological implications,” Logoped. Phoniatr. Vocol. 39, 62–71.
35. Schneider, B. , and Bigenzahn, W. (2005). “ Vocal risk factors for occupational voice disorders in female teaching students,” Eur. Arch. Otorhinolaryngol. 262, 272−276.
36. Schultz-Coulon, H. J. , and Asche, S. (1988). “ Das “Normstimmfeld”- ein Vorschlag” (“The ‘standard tuning bin’–a proposal”), Sprache - Stimme - Gehör 12, 5−8.
37. Schutte, H. K. , and Seidner, W. (1983). “ Recommendation by the Union of European Phoniatricians (UEP): Standardizing voice area measurement/phonetography,” Folia Phoniatr. 35, 286−288.
39. Šiupšinskiene, N. (2003). “ Quantitative analysis of professionally trained versus untrained voices,” Medicina (Kaunas) 39, 36−46.
40. Speyer, R. , Wieneke, G. H. , van Wijck-Warnaar, I. , and Dejonckere, P. H. (2003) “ Effects of voice therapy on the voice range profiles of dysphonic patients,” J. Voice 17, 544−556.
41. Sulter, A. M. , Schutte, H. K. , and Miller, D. G. (1995). “ Differences in phonetogram features between male and female subjects with and without vocal training,” J. Voice 9, 363−377.
43. Švec, J. G. , Lejska, M. , Frostová, J. , Zábrodský, M. , Dršata, J. , and Král, P. (2009). “ Czech version of the Voice Handicap Index questionnaire for quantitative evaluation of voice problems perceived by patients,” Otorinolaryng. Foniat. 58, 132−139 (in Czech).
44. Švec, J. G. , Popolo, P. S. , and Titze, I. R. (2003). “ Measurement of vocal doses in speech: Experimental procedure and signal processing,” Logoped. Phoniatr. Vocol. 28, 181−192.
45. Timmermans, B. , De Bodt, M. S. , Wuyts, F. L. , Boudewijns, A. , Clement, G. , Peeters, A. , and Van de Heyning, P. H. (2002). “ Poor voice quality in future elite vocal performers and professional voice users,” J. Voice 16, 372−382.
46. Titze, I. R. (1995). Workshop on acoustic voice analysis. Summary statement ( National Center for Voice and Speech, Denver, CO), pp. 1−36.
47. Wuyts, F. L. , De Bodt, M. S. , Molenberghs, G. , Remacle, M. , Heylen, L. , Millet, B. , Van Lierde, K. , Raes, J. , and Van de Heyning, P. H. (2000). “ The dysphonia severity index: An objective measure of vocal quality based on a multiparameter approach,” J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 43, 796−809.
Article metrics loading...
Accurate measurement of the softest sound levels of phonation presents technical
and methodological challenges. This study aimed at (1) reliably obtaining normative data
on sustained softest sound levels for the vowel [a:] at comfortable pitch; (2) comparing the results
for different frequency and time weighting methods; and (3) refining the Union of European
Phoniatricians' recommendation on allowed background noise levels for scientific and
equipment manufacturers' purposes. Eighty healthy untrained participants (40 females, 40
males) were investigated in quiet rooms using a head-mounted microphone and a sound level
meter at 30 cm distance. The one-second-equivalent sound levels were more stable and more
representative for evaluating the softest sustained phonations than the fast-time-weighted
levels. At 30 cm, these levels were in the range of 48−61 dB(C)/41−53 dB(A) for females
and 49 − 64 dB(C)/35−53 dB(A) for males (5% to 95% quantile range). These ranges may serve
as reference data in evaluating vocal normality. In order to reach a signal-to-noise ratio of at
least 10 dB for more than 95% of the normal population, the background noise should be below 25 dB(A)
and 38 dB(C), respectively, for the softest phonation measurements at 30 cm
distance. For the A-weighting, this is 15 dB lower than the previously recommended
Full text loading...
Most read this month