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1. H. van Rein, C. J. Brown, R. Quinn, J. Breen, and D. Schoeman, “ An evaluation of acoustic seabed classification techniques for marine biotope monitoring over broad-scales (>1 km2) and meso-scales (10 m2–1 km2),” Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci. 93, 336349 (2011).
2. J.-P. Hermand, J. Randall, J. Ross, and C. Johnson, “ Acoustics of Ecklonia radiata kelp forest (Tasmania): MARIA11-FORTES12 cruise report,” Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium, Tech. Rep. ULB-EHL-CR2013-2, 26 pp. (2013).
3. C. J. Wilson, P. S. Wilson, and K. H. Dunton, “ Assessing the low frequency acoustic characteristics of Macrocystis pyrifera, Egregia menziessi, and Laminaria solidungula,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 38193826 (2013).
4. M. J. Povey, Ultrasonic Techniques for Fluids Characterization ( Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1997).
5. J. Randall, J.-P. Hermand, M.-E. Ernould, J. Ross, and C. Johnson, “ Measurement of acoustic material properties of macroalgae (Ecklonia radiata),” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 461, 430440 (2014).
6. G. Enenstein, C. Dolder, P. S. Wilson, and J.-P. Hermand, “ Investigation of low-frequency acoustic tissue properties of seagrass,” Proc. Meet. Acoust. 19, 005007 (2013).
7. K. G. Foote, “ Speed of sound in Euphasia superba,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 87, 14051408 (1990).

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A methodology is developed to measure ultrasonic velocity of submerged aquatic vegetation tissue, in particular, macroalgae, in a nondestructive and efficient manner. An entire thallus is submerged in artificial seawater-filled tank through which many ultrasonic pulse-echo measurements are recorded while thallus parts are randomly displaced. Average sound speed of tissue is estimated from normal fit to extracted travel times given measured total volume fraction of tissue and travel time in water alone. For species the resulting values for sound speed 1573.4 ± 4.8 m s−1 and adiabatic compressibility 3.134 ×10−10 ± 1.34 ×10−11 Pa−1 at 18 °C agree with more laborious and destructive methods.


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