No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
The bag-of-frames approach: A not so sufficient model for urban soundscapes
1. Aucouturier, J.-J. , and Defreville, B. (2009). “ Judging the similarity of soundscapes does not require categorization: Evidence from spliced stimuli,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125(4), 2155–2161.
2. Aucouturier, J.-J. , Defreville, B. , and Pachet, F. (2007). “ The bag-of-frames approach to audio pattern recognition: A sufficient model for urban soundscapes but not for polyphonic music,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122(2), 881–891.
4. Barchiesi, D. , Giannoulis, D. , Stowell, D. , and Plumbley, M. (2015). “ Acoustic scene classification: Classifying environments from the sounds they produce,” IEEE Sign. Process. Mag. 32(3), 16–34.
5. Flexer, A. (2007). “ A closer look on artist filters for musical genre classification,” in Proceedings of the 2007 International Conference on Music Information Retrieval (ISMIR).
6. Giannoulis, D. , Stowell, D. , Benetos, E. , Rossignol, M. , Lagrange, M. , and Plumbley, M. D. (2013a). “ A database and challenge for acoustic scene classification and event detection,” in Proceedings of EUSIPCO, pp. 1–5.
7. Giannoulis, D. , Stowell, D. , Benetos, E. , Rossignol, M. , Lagrange, M. , and Plumbley, M. D. (2013b). “ Detection and classification of acoustic scenes and events: An IEEE AASP challenge,” in Proceedings of WASPAA: IEEE Workshop on Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics.
9. Guastavino, C. , Katz, B. , Polack, J. , Levitin, D. , and Dubois, D. (2005). “ Ecological validity of soundscape reproduction,” Acta Acust. Acust. 91, 333–341.
10. Leech, R. , Gygi, B. , Aydelott, J. , and Dick, F. (2009). “ Informational factors in identifying environmental sounds in natural auditory scenes,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 126(6), 3147–3155.
11. McDermott, J. H. , Schemitsch, M. , and Simoncelli, E. P. (2013). “ Summary statistics in auditory perception,” Nat. Neurosci. 16(4), 493–498.
13. Page, K. R. , Fields, B. , De Roure, D. , Crawford, T. , and Downie, J. S. (2013). “ Capturing the workflows of music information retrieval for repeatability and reuse,” J. Intell. Inf. Syst. 41(3), 435–459.
14. Park, T. H. , Turner, J. , Musick, M. , Lee, J. H. , Jacoby, C. , Mydlarz, C. , and Salamon, J. (2014). “ Sensing urban soundscapes,” in Proceedings of the EDBT/ICDT Workshops, pp. 375–382.
15. Slaney, M. (1998). “ Auditory toolbox,” interval research technical report.
16. Sturm, B. L. (2012). “ An analysis of the gtzan music genre dataset,” in Proceedings of the Second International ACM Workshop on Music Information Retrieval with User-Centered and Multimodal Strategies, pp. 7–12.
18. Su, L. , Yeh, C. , Liu, J. , Wang, J. , and Yang, Y. (2014). “ A systematic evaluation of the bag-of-frames representation for music information retrieval,” IEEE Trans. Multimedia 16(5), 1188–1200.
19. Tardieu, J. , Susini, P. , Poisson, F. , Lazareff, P. , and McAdams, S. (2008). “ Perceptual study of soundscapes in train stations,” Appl. Acoust. 69(12), 1224–1239.
Article metrics loading...
The “bag-of-frames” (BOF) approach, which encodes audio signals as the long-term statistical distribution of short-term spectral features, is commonly regarded as an effective and sufficient way to represent environmental sound recordings (soundscapes). The present paper describes a conceptual replication of a use of the BOF approach in a seminal article using several other soundscape datasets, with results strongly questioning the adequacy of the BOF approach for the task. As demonstrated in this paper, the good accuracy originally reported with BOF likely resulted from a particularly permissive dataset with low within-class variability. Soundscapemodeling, therefore, may not be the closed case it was once thought to be.
Full text loading...
Most read this month