No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
Transaural experiments and a revised duplex theory for the localization of low-frequency tones
1. Bernstein, L. R. , and Trahiotis, C. (1985). “ Lateralization of low-frequency complex wave-forms: The use of envelope-based temporal disparities,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 77, 1868–1880.
2. Blauert, J. (1969). “ Sound localization in the median plane,” Acustica 22, 205–213.
3. Blauert, J. (1982). “ Binaural localization: Multiple images and applications in rooms and electroacoustics,” in Localization of Sound: Theory and Applications, edited by R. W. Gatehouse ( Amphora, Groton, CT), pp. 65–84.
4. Blauert, J. (1996). Spatial Hearing, revised edition ( MIT Press, Cambridge, MA), pp. 109–112, 170.
5. Brughera, A. , Dunai, L. , and Hartmann, W. M. (2013). “ Human interaural time difference thresholds for sine tones. The high-frequency limit,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 2839–2855.
6. Brungart, D. S. , and Rabinowitz, W. M. (1999). “ Auditory localization of nearby sources. HRTFs,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 106, 1465–1479.
7. Buell, T. N. , Trahiotis, C. , and Bernstein, L. R. (1991). “ Lateralization of low-frequency tones: Relative potency of gating and ongoing interaural delays,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 90, 3077–3085.
8. Cai, T. , Rakerd, B. , and Hartmann, W. M. (2015). “ Computing interaural differences through finite element modeling of idealized human heads,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 138, 1549–1560.
9. Colburn, H. S. (1977). “ Theory of binaural interaction based on auditory-nerve data. II. Detection of tones in noise,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 61, 525–533.
10. Colburn, H. S. , and Latimer, J. S. (1978). “ Theory of binaural interaction based on auditory-nerve data. III. Joint dependence on interaural time and amplitude differences in discrimination and detection,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 64, 95–106.
11. Constan, Z. A. , and Hartmann, W. M. (2003). “ On the detection of dispersion in the head-related transfer function,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 998–1008.
12. David, E. E. , Jr., Guttman, N. , and van Bergerijk, W. A. (1958). “ On the mechanism of binaural fusion,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Lett. 30, 801–802.
13. Deatherage, B. H. , Eldredge, D. H. , and Davis, H. (1959). “ Latency of action potentials in the cochlea of the guinea pig,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 31, 479–486.
15. Domnitz, R. H. , and Colburn, H. S. (1977). “ Lateral position and interaural discrimination,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 61, 1586–1598.
16. Edmonds, B. A. , and Krumbholz, K. (2014). “ Are interaural time and level differences represented by independent or integrated codes in the human auditory cortex?,” J. Assn. Res. Otolaryngol. 15, 103–114.
17. Elpern, B. S. , and Naughton, R. F. (1964). “ Lateralizing effects of interaural phase differences,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 36, 1392–1393.
18. Gaik, W. (1993). “ Combined evaluation of interaural time and intensity differences: Psychoacoustic results and computer modeling,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 94, 98–110.
19. Garner, W. R. , and Wertheimer, M. (1951). “ Some effects of interaural phase differences on the perception of pure tones,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 23, 664–667.
20. Hafter, E. R. , and Carrier, S. C. (1972). “ Binaural interactions in low-frequency stimuli: The inability to trade time and intensity completely,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 51, 1852–1862.
21. Hammershøi, D. , and Møller, H. (1996). “ Sound transmission to and within the human ear canal,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 408–427.
22. Hebrank, J. , and Wright, D. (1974). “ Spectral cues used in the localization of sound sources on the median plane,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 56, 1829–1834.
23. Macpherson, E. A. , and Middlebrooks, J. C. (2002). “ Listener weighting of cues for lateral angle: The duplex theory of sound localization revisited,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 111, 2219–2236.
24. Macpherson, E. A. , and Sabin, A. T. (2007). “ Binaural weighting of monaural spectral cues for sound localization,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 121, 3677–3688.
25. McFadden, D. , Jeffress, L. A. , and Russell, W. E. (1973). “ Individual differences in sensitivity to interaural differences in time and level,” Percept. Motor Skills 37, 755–761.
29. Moushegian, G. , and Jeffress, L. A. (1959). “ Role of interaural time and intensity differences in the lateralization of low-frequency tones,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 31, 1441–1445.
30. Rakerd, B. , and Hartmann, W. M. (2010). “ Localization of sound in rooms. V. Binaural coherence and human sensitivity to interaural time differences in noise,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 128, 3052–3063.
31. Ravicz, M. E. , Cheng, J. T. , and Rosowski, J. J. (2014). “ Sound pressure distribution within natural and artificial human ear canals: Forward stimulation,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 136, 3132–3146.
32. Roffler, S. K. , and Butler, R. A. (1968). “ Factors that influence the localization of sound in the vertical plane,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 43, 1255–1260.
33. Sandel, T. T. , Teas, D. C. , Feddersen, W. E. , and Jeffress, L. A. (1955). “ Localization of sound from single and paired sources,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 27, 842–852.
35. Sayers, B. McA. , and Cherry, E. C. (1957). “ Mechanism of binaural fusion in the hearing of speech,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 29, 973–987.
36. Schiano, J. L. , Trahiotis, C. , and Bernstein, L. R. (1986). “ Lateralization of low-frequency tones and narrow bands of noise,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 79, 1563–1570.
37. Schroeder, M. R. , and Atal, B. S. (1963). “ Computer simulation of sound transmission in rooms,” IEEE Int. Conv. Rec. 11, 150–155.
38. Shaxby, J. H. , and Gage, F. H. (1932). “ The localization of sounds in the median plane,” Special Report No. 166, Medical Research Council, Reports of the Committee upon the Physiology of Hearing, H. M Stationery Office Code 45-5-66, Universal Decimal Classification 612-858-751+535-76, pp. 1–32.
39. Stern, R. M. , and Colburn, H. S. (1978). “ Theory of binaural interaction based on auditory-nerve data. IV. A model for subjective lateral position,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 64, 127–140.
40. Stern, R. M. , and Shear, G. D. (1996). “ Lateralization and detection of low-frequency binaural stimuli: Effects of distribution of internal delay,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 2278–2288.
43. Strutt, J. W. (1909). “ On our perception of the direction of sound,” Proc. R. Soc. London 83, 61–64.
44. Trahiotis, C. , and Stern, R. M. (1989). “ Lateralization of bands of noise: Effects of bandwidth and differences of interaural time and phase,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 1285–1293.
45. Wightman, F. L. , and Kistler, D. J. (1989a). “ Headphone simulation of free field listening. I: Stimulus synthesis,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 85, 858–867.
46. Wightman, F. L. , and Kistler, D. J. (1989b). “ Headphone simulation of free field listening. II: Psychophysical validation,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 85, 868–878.
47. Wightman, F. L. , and Kistler, D. J. (1992). “ The dominant role of low-frequency interaural time differences in sound localization,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 91, 1648–1661.
48. Yost, W. A. (1981). “ Lateral position of sinusoids presented with interaural intensive and temporal differences,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 70, 397–409.
50. Zhang, P. X. , and Hartmann, W. M. (2006). “ Lateralization of sine tones—Interaural time vs phase,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120, 3471–3474.
Article metrics loading...
The roles of interaural time difference(ITD) and interaural level difference (ILD) were studied in free-field source localization experiments for sine tones of low frequency (250–750 Hz). Experiments combined real-source trials with virtual trials created through transaural synthesis based on real-time ear canal measurements. Experiments showed the following: (1) The naturally occurring ILD is physically large enough to exert an influence on sound localization well below 1000 Hz. (2) An ILD having the same sign as the ITD modestly enhances the perceived azimuth of tones for all values of the ITD, and it eliminates left-right confusions that otherwise occur when the interaural phase difference (IPD) passes 180°. (3) Increasing the ILD to large, implausible values can decrease the perceived laterality while also increasing front-back confusions. (4) Tone localization is more directly related to the ITD than to the IPD. (5) An ILD having a sign opposite to the ITD promotes a slipped-cycle ITD, sometimes with dramatic effects on localization. Because the role of the ITD itself is altered by the ILD, the duplex processing of ITD and ILD reflects more than mere trading; the effect of the ITD can be reversed in sign.
Full text loading...
Most read this month