Skip to main content

News about Scitation

In December 2016 Scitation will launch with a new design, enhanced navigation and a much improved user experience.

To ensure a smooth transition, from today, we are temporarily stopping new account registration and single article purchases. If you already have an account you can continue to use the site as normal.

For help or more information please visit our FAQs.

banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
1. Bourke, R. H. , and Parsons, A. R. (1993). “ Ambient noise characteristics of the northwestern Barents Sea,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 94(5), 27992808.
2. Buckingham, M. J. , and Cheng, C. (1988). “ Ambient noise in the Arctic Ocean below the Marginal Ice Zone,” in Natural Mechanisms of Surface Generated Noise in the Ocean, edited by B. R. Kerman ( Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1993), pp. 115.
3. de Steur, L. , Hansen, E. , Mauritzen, C. , Beszczynska-Möller, A. , and Fahrbach, E. (2014). “ Impact of recirculation on the East Greenland Current in Fram Strait: Results from moored current meter measurements between 1997 and 2009,” Deep-Sea Res. I 92, 2640.
4. Diachok, O. I. , and Winokur, R. S. (1974). “ Spatial variability of underwater ambient noise at the Arctic ice-water boundary,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 55, 750753.
5. Freitag, L. (2015). (private communication).
6. Johannessen, O. M. , Sagen, H. , and Sandven, S. (1994). “ The influence of grease ice, swell and icebergs on ambient noise,” in Proceedings of the Second European Conference on Underwater Acoustics, edited by L. Bjørnø, European Commission Directorate-General XIII Telecommunications, Information Market and Exploitation of Research, Luxembourg, pp. 5358.
7. Johannessen, O. M. , Sagen, H. , Sandven, S. , and Stark, K. V. (2003). “ Hotspots in ambient noise caused by ice-edge eddies in the Greenland and Barents seas,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 28, 212228.
8. Kinda, B. (2013). “ Acoustic remote sensing of Arctic Sea ice from long term soundscape measurements, Signal and image processing,” Ph.D. thesis, Université de Grenoble, Grenoble.
9. Klinck, H. , Nieukirk, S. L. , Mellinger, D. K. , Klinck, K. , Matsumoto, H. , and Dziak, R. P. (2012). “ Seasonal presence of cetaceans and ambient noise levels in polar waters of the North Atlantic,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, EL176EL181.
10. Laible, H. A. , and Rajan, S. D. (1996). “ Temporal evolution of under ice reflectivity,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99(2), 851865.
11. Lewis, J. K. , and Denner, W. W. (1988). “ Arctic ambient noise in the Beaufort Sea: Seasonal relationships to sea ice kinematics,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 83(2), 549565.
12. Lynch, J. F. , Wu, H. X. , Pawlowicz, R. , Worcester, P. , Keenan, R. E. , Graber, H. C. , Johannessen, O. M. , Wadhams, P. , and Schuchman. R. A. (1993). “ Ambient noise measurements in the 200–300 Hz band from the Greenland Sea tomography experiment,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 94(2), 10151033.
13. Makris, N. , and Dyer, I. (1986). “ Environmental causes of pack ice noise,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 79(5), 14341440.
14. Makris, N. C. , and Dyer, I. (1991). “ Environmental correlates of Arctic ice edge noise,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 90, 32883298.
15. Moore, S. M. , Stafford, K. M. , Melling, H. , Berchok, C. , Wiig, Ø. , Kovacs, K. M. , Lydersen, C. , and Richter-Menge, J. (2012). “ Comparing marine mammal acoustic habitats in Atlantic and Pacific sectors of the High Arctic: Year-long records from Fram Strait and the Chukchi Plateau,” Polar Biol. 35, 475480.
16. Pritchard, R. S. (1990). “ Sea ice noise-generating processes,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 28302842.
17. Roth, E. H. , Schmidt, V. , Hildebrand, J. A. , and Wiggins, S. M. (2013). “ Underwater radiated noise levels of a research icebreaker in the central Arctic Ocean,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133(4), 19711980.
18. Sagen, H. (1998). “ Ambient noise in the Marginal Ice Zone,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Bergen, Bergen.
19. Sagen, H. , Tollefsen, D. , and Tengesdal, H. C. (2014). “ The soundscape of the Fram Strait Marginal Ice Zone,” in UAC 2014-2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Underwater Acoustics, Rhodes, Greece.
20. Schmidt, H. , and Jensen, F. B. (1985). “ A full wave solution for propagation in multilayered viscoelastic media with application to Gaussian beam reflection at fluid-solid interfaces,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 77, 813825.
22. Tollefsen, D. , Dombestein, E. M. , and Sagen, H. (2015). “ Modelling of noise due to distant seismic exploration in the Marginal Ice Zone,” in Proceedings of EuroNoise 2015, Maastricht, the Netherlands, pp. 13831386.
21. Tollefsen, D. , and Sagen, H. (2014). “ Seismic exploration noise reduction in the Marginal Ice Zone,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 136(1), EL47EL52.
23. Yang, T. C. , Giellis, G. R. , Votaw, C. W. , and Diachok, O. I. (1987). “ Acoustic properties of ice edge noise in the Greenland Sea,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 82, 10341038.

Data & Media loading...


Article metrics loading...



Acoustic experiments using an integrated ice station were carried out during August 2012 and September 2013 in the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) of Fram Strait. The two experiments lasted four days each and collected under-ice acoustic recordings together with wave-in-ice and meteorological data. Synthetic aperture radar satellite data provided information on regional ice conditions. Four major components of the under-ice soundscape were identified: shipcavitationnoise,seismic airgun noise, marine mammal vocalizations, and natural background noise.Shipcavitationnoise was connected to heavy icebreaking. It dominated the soundscape at times, with noise levels (NLs) 100 km from the icebreaker increased by 10–28 dB. Seismic airgun noise that originated from seismic surveys more than 800 km away was present during 117 out of 188 observation hours. It increased NLs at 20–120 Hz by 2–6 dB. Marine mammal vocalizations were a minor influence on measured NLs, but their prevalence shows the biological importance of the MIZ. The 10th percentile of the noise distributions was used to identify the ambient background noise. Background NLs above 100 Hz differed by 12 dB between the two experiments, presumably due to variations in natural noise sources.


Full text loading...


Access Key

  • FFree Content
  • OAOpen Access Content
  • SSubscribed Content
  • TFree Trial Content
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd