No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
Influence of voxelization on finite difference time domain simulations of head-related transfer functions
T. Hirahara, H. Sagara, I. Toshima, and M. Otani, “ Head movement during head-related transfer function measurements,” Acoust. Sci. Technol. 31(2), 165–171 (2010).
D. Toledo and H. Møller, “ Issues on dummy-head HRTFs measurements,” in 126th Audio Engineering Society Convention, Munich, Germany (2009), pp. 7727:1–7727:11.
X.-L. Zhong and B.-S. Xie, “ Consistency among the head-related transfer functions from different measurements,” Proc. Mtgs. Acoust. 19, 050014 (2013).
J. G. Bolaños and V. Pulkki, “ HRIR database with measured actual source direction data,” in 133th Convention of the Audio Engineering Society, San Francisco, CA (2012).
F. Wightman and D. Kistler, “ Measurement and validation of human HRTFs for use in hearing research,” Acta Acust. Acust. 91(3), 429–439 (2005).
B. F. G. Katz, “ Boundary element method calculation of individual head-related transfer function. I. Rigid model calculation,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110(3), 2440–2448 (2001).
B. F. G. Katz, “ Boundary element method calculation of individual head-related transfer function. II. Impedance effects and comparisons to real measurements,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110(5), 2449–2455 (2001).
Y. Kahana and P. A. Nelson, “ Boundary element simulations of the transfer function of human heads and baffled pinnae using accurate geometric models,” J. Sound Vib. 300(3–5), 552–579 (2007).
T. Huttunen, E. T. Seppälä, O. Kirkeby, A. Kärkkäinen, and L. Kärkkäinen, “ Simulation of the transfer function for a head-and-torso model over the entire audible frequency range,” J. Comput. Acoust. 15(4), 429–448 (2007).
A. Meshram, R. Mehra, and D. Manocha, “ Efficient HRTF computation using adaptive rectangular decomposition,” in Proceedings of the AES 55th International Conference, Helsinki, Finland (2014), pp. 2-2:1–2-2:8.
T. Xiao and Q. H. Liu, “ Finite difference computation of head-related transfer function for human hearing,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113(5), 2434–2441 (2003).
P. Mokhtari, H. Takemoto, R. Nishimura, and H. Kato, “ Comparison of simulated and measured HRTFs: FDTD simulation using MRI head data,” in 123rd Convention of the Audio Engineering Society, New York (2007), pp. 7240:1–7240:12.
P. Mokhtari, H. Takemoto, R. Nishimura, and H. Kato, “ Acoustic simulation of KEMAR's HRTFs: Verification with measurements and the effects of modifying head shape and pinna concavity,” in Proceedings of the International Working Principles and Applications of Spatial Hearing (IWPASH), Zao, Japan (2009).
H. Takemoto, P. Mokhtari, H. Kato, R. Nishimura, and K. Iida, “ Mechanism for generating peaks and notches of head-related transfer functions in the median plane,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132(6), 3832–3841 (2012).
W. Kreuzer, P. Majdak, and Z. Chen, “ Fast multipole boundary element method to calculate head-related transfer functions for a wide frequency range,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 126(3), 1280–1290 (2009).
S. Bilbao, “ Modeling of complex geometries and boundary conditions in finite difference/finite volume time domain room acoustics simulation,” IEEE Trans. Audio, Speech, Lang. Process. 21(7), 1524–1533 (2013).
V. R. Algazi, C. Avendano, and R. O. Duda, “ Elevation localization and head-related transfer function analysis at low frequencies,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109(3), 1110–1122 (2001).
V. R. Algazi, “ Documentation for the UCD HRIR files,” Technical Report, CIPIC Interface Laboratory—University of California at Davis (1998).
G. F. Kuhn and E. D. Burnett, “ Acoustic pressure field alongside a manikin's head with a view towards in situ hearing-aid tests,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62(2), 416–423 (1977).
M. D. Burkhard, “ Chapter 3. Anthropometric manikin for acoustic research, supplementary design information,” in Manikin Measurements: Conference Proceedings ( Industrial Research Products, Inc., Itasca, IL, 1978), pp. 13–16.
J. Saarelma and L. Savioja, “ An open source finite-difference time-domain solver for room acoustics using graphics processing units,” in Proceedings Forum Acusticum, Krakow, Poland (2014).
C. Webb and S. Bilbao, “ Computing room acoustics with CUDA—3D FDTD schemes with boundary losses and viscosity,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, Prague, Czech Republic (2011), pp. 317–320.
L. E. Kinsler, F. R. Austin, C. B. Alan, and S. V. James, “ Chapter 5: The acoustic wave equation and simple solutions,” in Fundamentals of Acoustics, 4th ed. ( Wiley, New York, 2000), pp. 120–121.
J. Sheaffer, M. v. Walstijn, and B. Fazenda, “ Physical and numerical constraints in source modeling for finite difference simulation of room acoustics,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 135(1), 251–261 (2014).
J. Huopaniemi, N. Zacharov, and M. Karjalainen, “ Objective and subjective evaluation of head-related transfer function filter design,” J. Audio Eng. Soc. 47(4), 218–239 (1999).
J. Sandvad and D. Hammershøi, “ Binaural auralization, comparison of FIR and IIR filter representation of HIRs,” in 96th Convention of the Audio Engineering Society, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (1994), pp. 3862:1–3862:16.
M. D. McKay, R. J. Beckman, and W. J. Conover, “ Comparison of three methods for selecting values of input variables in the analysis of output from a computer code,” Technometrics 21(2), 239–245 (1979).
J. Blauert, “ Chapter 2.2: The sound field at the two ears,” in Spatial Hearing: The Psychophysics of Human Sound Localization, Revised Edition ( MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1997), pp. 63–74.
J. Schneider and C. Wagner, “ FDTD dispersion revisited: Faster-than-light propagation,” IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 9(2), 54–56 (1999).
A. Southern, D. T. Murphy, T. Lokki, and L. Savioja, “ The perceptual effects of dispersion error on room acoustic model auralization,” in Proceedings Forum Acusticum, Aalborg, Denmark (2011), pp. 1553–1558.
P. Mokhtari, H. Takemoto, R. Nishimura, and H. Kato, “ Acoustic sensitivity to micro-perturbations of KEMAR's pinna surface geometry,” in Proceedings of the 20th International Congress on Acoustics (ICA'10), Sydney, Australia (2010).
P. Mokhtari, H. Takemoto, R. Nishimura, and H. Kato, “ Pinna sensitivity patterns reveal reflecting and diffracting surfaces that generate the first spectral notch in the front median plane,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, Prague, Czech Republic (2011), pp. 2408–2411.
B. F. G. Katz, “ Acoustic absorption measurement of human hair and skin within the audible frequency range,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108(5), 2238–2242 (2000).
S. Bilbao, B. Hamilton, J. Botts, and L. Savioja, “ Finite volume time domain room acoustics simulation under general impedance boundary conditions,” IEEE Trans. Audio, Speech, Lang. Process. 24(1), 161–173 (2016).
B. Hamilton and S. Bilbao, “ On finite difference schemes for the 3-D wave equation using non-Cartesian grids,” in Proceedings of the Sound and Music Computing (SMC) Conference, Stockholm, Sweden (2013), pp. 592–599.
F. Brinkmann, A. Lindau, M. Müller-Trapet, M. Vorländer, and S. Weinzierl, “ Cross-validation of measured and modeled head-related transfer functions,” in DAGA 2015, Nürberg, Germany (2015).
K. A. J. Riederer, “ Repeatability analysis of head-related transfer function measurements,” in 105th Convention of the Audio Engineering Society, San Francisco, CA (1998), pp. 4846:1–4846:62.
A. Kärkkäinen, L. Kärkkäinen, O. Kirkeby, M. Pölönen, E. Seppälä, J. Turku, and M. Vilermo, “ Perceptual evaluation of numerically simulated head-related transfer functions,” in 124th Convention of the Audio Engineering Society, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (2008), pp. 7489:1–7489:7.
P. J. Roache, “ Chapter 5: Grid convergence studies and the grid convergence index,” in Verification and Validation in Computational Science and Engineering ( Hermosa Pub, Albuquerque, NM, 1998), pp. 107–136.
Article metrics loading...
The scattering around the human pinna that is captured by the Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs) is a complex problem that creates uncertainties in both acoustical measurements and simulations. Within the simulation framework of Finite Difference Time Domain
(FDTD) with axis-aligned staircase boundaries resulting from a voxelization process, the voxelization-based uncertainty propagating in the HRTF-captured sound field is quantified for one solid and two surface voxelization algorithms. Simulated results utilizing a laser-scanned mesh of Knowles Electronics Manikin for Acoustic Research (KEMAR) show that in the context of complex geometries with local topology comparable to grid spacing such as the human pinna, the voxelization-related uncertainties in simulations emerge at lower frequencies than the generally used accuracy bandwidths. Numerical simulations show that the voxelization process induces both random error and algorithm-dependent bias in the simulated HRTF spectral features. Frequencies fr below which the random error is bounded by various dB thresholds are estimated and predicted. Particular shortcomings of the used voxelization algorithms are identified and the influence of the surface impedance on the induced errors is studied. Simulations are also validated against measurements.
Full text loading...
Most read this month