Skip to main content
banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
Marine Mammal Protection Act (1972), (Last viewed 18 September 2015).
Endangered Species Act of 1973, (Last viewed 18 September 2015).
Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008 establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy (marine strategy framework directive) (2008), (Last viewed 18 September 2015).
Commission Decision of 1 September 2010 on criteria and methodological standards on good environmental status of marine waters, Official Journal of the European Union (2010).
K. Lucke, E. Winter, G. Scowcroft, A. Hawkins, F. P. Lam, and A. N. Popper, report of the Workshop on International Harmonisation of Approaches to Define Underwater Noise Exposure Criteria, Workshop on International Harmonisation of Approaches to Define Underwater Noise Exposure Criteria, Budapest, Hungary, 17 August 2013 (2014).
R. P. A. Dekeling, M. L. Tasker, M. A. Ainslie, M. Andersson, M. André, M. Castellote, J. F. Borsani, J. Dalen, T. Folegot, R. Leaper, A. Liebschner, J. Pajala, S. P. Robinson, P. Sigray, G. Sutton, F. Thomsen, A. J. Van der Graaf, S. Werner, D. Wittekind, and J. V. Young, “ Monitoring guidance for underwater noise in European seas, part I: Executive summary,” JRC Scientific and Policy Report EUR 26557 EN, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg (2014).
International Whaling Commission, Joint workshop report, “ Predicting sound fields global soundscape modelling to inform management of cetaceans and anthropogenic noise,” 15–16 April 2014, Leiden, The Netherlands (2014).
S. C. Wales and R. M. Heitmeyer, “ An ensemble source spectra model for merchant ship-radiated noise,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 111(3), 12111231 (2002).
ISO/DIS 18405, “ Underwater acoustics terminology” (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2015).
M. A. Ainslie, Principles of Sonar Performance Modeling ( Praxis, Chichester, UK, 2010).
F. B. Jensen, W. A. Kuperman, M. B. Porter, and H. Schmidt, Computational Ocean Acoustics ( American Institute of Physics, New York, 1994).
M. B. Porter, “ The KRAKEN normal mode program,” SACLANT Undersea Research Centre technical report (1990).
M. A. Ainslie, C. H. Harrison, and M. Zampolli, “ An analytical solution for signal, background and signal to background ratio for a low frequency active sonar in a Pekeris waveguide satisfying Lambert's rule,” in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference and Exhibition on Underwater Acoustic Measurements: Technologies and Results (2011), pp. 491498.
P. T. Arveson and D. J. Vendittis, “ Radiated noise characteristics of a modern cargo ship,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107(1), 118129 (2000).
M. A. Ainslie, K. L. Heaney, B. Binnerts, H. Ö. Sertlek, P. D. Theobald, and T. Pangerc, “ Use of sound maps for monitoring GES: Examples and way ahead,” TNO Report No. R11167 (2014).
16. (Last viewed 15 September 2015).
17. (Last viewed 15 September 2015).

Data & Media loading...


Article metrics loading...



Sound mapping over large areas can be computationally expensive because of the large number of sources and large source-receiver separations involved. In order to facilitate computation, a simplifying assumption sometimes made is to neglect the sound speed gradient in shallow water. The accuracy of this assumption is investigated for ship generated sound in the Dutch North Sea, for realistic ship and wind distributions. Sound maps are generated for zero, negative and positive gradients for selected frequency bands (56 Hz to 3.6 kHz). The effect of sound speed profile for the decidecade centred at 125 Hz is less than 1.7 dB.


Full text loading...


Access Key

  • FFree Content
  • OAOpen Access Content
  • SSubscribed Content
  • TFree Trial Content
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd