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S. Pinson and L. Guillon, “ Sound speed profile characterization by the image source method,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 128, 16851693 (2010).
S. Pinson, L. Guillon, and C. W. Holland, “ Range dependent sediment sound speed profile measurements using the image source method,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134, 156165 (2013).
S. Pinson and C. W. Holland, “ Seafloor sound-speed profile and interface dip angle characterization by the image source method,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 136, 596603 (2014).
C. W. Holland, G. Etiope, A. V. Milkov, E. Michelozzi, and P. Favali, “ Mud volcanoes discovered offshore sicily,” Mar. Geol. 199, 16 (2003).
A. Savini, E. Malinverno, G. Etiope, C. Tessarolo, and C. Corselli, “ Shallow seep-related seafloor features along the malta plateau (sicily channel–mediterranean sea): Morphologies and geo-environmental control of their distribution,” Mar. Pet. Geol. 26, 18311848 (2009).
C. W. Holland, T. C. Weber, and G. Etiope, “ Acoustic scattering from mud volcanoes and carbonate mounds,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120, 35533565 (2006).

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The image source method was originally developed to estimate sediment sound speed as a function of depth assuming plane-layered sediments. Recently, the technique was extended to treat dipping, i.e., non-parallel layers and was tested using synthetic data. Here, the technique is applied to measured reflection data with dipping layers and mud volcanoes. The data were collected with an autonomous underwater vehicle towing a source (1600–3500 Hz) and a horizontal array of hydrophones. Data were collected every 3 m criss-crossing an area about 1 km2. The results provide a combination of two-dimensional sections of the sediment sound-speeds plotted in a three-dimensional picture.


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