- jasa express letters
- animal bioacoustics
- architectural acoustics
- biomedical acoustics
- engineering acoustics
- musical acoustics
- physical acoustics
- psychological and physiological acoustics
- signal processing in acoustics
- speech communication
- structural acoustics and vibration
- underwater acoustics
- letters to the editor
- acoustical standards news
- reviews of acoustical patents
Index of content:
Volume 138, Issue 5, November 2015
- JASA EXPRESS LETTERS
138(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4935078View Description Hide Description
The stopband of pipe extensional waves is an interesting natural phenomenon. This study demonstrates an important extension of this phenomenon. That is, the stopband can be effectively broadened by transmitting the waves across the joint of pipes of different thickness. The theoretical and experimental results reveal the detailed process of stopband forming along the pipe and the band broadening across the pipe joint. The result can be utilized to provide a method for logging while drilling acoustic isolation design.
138(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4935070View Description Hide Description
During studies of humpback whale song and social sounds in Hawaii, bouts of low frequency (ca. 40 Hz) pulses were periodically recorded. One example was made near an active group of eight adults (included 22 bouts, 2–13 s long, over 90 min); another close to an adult male-female pair (12 bouts, 9–93 s long, over 22 min). The mean peak and center frequencies (39 to 40 Hz) and bandwidth (13 Hz) were similar in both, but the organization of the pulses differed. Song components, social sounds, bubble trains, or other species do not provide a ready explanation for this sound.
Level considerations for chimeric processing: Temporal envelope and fine structure contributions to speech intelligibility138(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4935079View Description Hide Description
Chimeric processing is used to assess the respective role of the acoustic temporal envelope (ENV) and the temporal fine structure (TFS) by adding noise to either component. An acoustic analysis demonstrates that adding noise to the ENV results in noise degradation of the ENV and overall signal attenuation, whereas adding noise to the TFS results in only noise degradation of the TFS. Young normal hearing adults were then tested using a modified chimeric strategy to maintain speech levels. Results partially confirm the primary role of the ENV in determining speech intelligibility but demonstrate significant TFS contributions during selective ENV masking.
138(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4935081View Description Hide Description
Children's performance on psychophysical tasks improves with age. The relationship of spectro-temporal modulation detection to age, particularly in children who are hard of hearing, is not well-established. In this study, children with normal hearing (N = 22) and with sensorineural hearing loss (N = 15) completed measures of spectro-temporal modulation detection. Measures of aided audibility were completed in the children who are hard of hearing. Pearson product-moment correlations were completed with listener age and aided audibility as parameters. Spectro-temporal modulation detection performance increased with listener age and with greater aided audibility.
138(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4935080View Description Hide Description
A recent method for calibrating single-element, focused passive cavitation detectors (PCD) compares bistatic scattering measurements by the PCD and a reference hydrophone. Here, effects of scatterer properties and PCD size on frequency-dependent receive calibration accuracy are investigated. Simulated scattering from silica and polystyrene spheres was compared for small hydrophone and spherically focused PCD receivers to assess the achievable calibration accuracy as a function of frequency, scatterer size, and PCD size. Good agreement between measurements was found when the scatterer diameter was sufficiently smaller than the focal beamwidth of the PCD; this relationship was dependent on the scatterer material. For conditions that result in significant disagreement between measurements, the numerical methods described here can be used to correct experimental calibrations.
Converging measures of binaural detection yield estimates of precision of coding of interaural temporal disparities138(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4935606View Description Hide Description
This presentation reports binaural detection data obtained using a special set of three stimulus configurations. The configurations are shown to yield “converging” measures that allow one to describe how precision of coding of interaural temporal disparities (ITDs) changes as a function of both reference ITD and the center frequency of the stimuli.
Generation of a reference radiation pattern of string instruments using automatic excitation and acoustic centering138(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4935083View Description Hide Description
Radiation patterns of musical instruments are important for the understanding of music perception in concert halls, and may be used to improve the plausibility of virtual acoustic systems. Many attempts have been performed to measure the spatial response of musical instruments using surrounding spherical microphone arrays with a limited number of microphones. This work presents a high-resolution spatial sampling of the radiation pattern of an electrically excited violin, and addresses technical problems that arise due to mechanical reasons of the excitation apparatus using acoustic centering.
138(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4935350View Description Hide Description
The “bag-of-frames” (BOF) approach, which encodes audio signals as the long-term statistical distribution of short-term spectral features, is commonly regarded as an effective and sufficient way to represent environmental sound recordings (soundscapes). The present paper describes a conceptual replication of a use of the BOF approach in a seminal article using several other soundscape datasets, with results strongly questioning the adequacy of the BOF approach for the task. As demonstrated in this paper, the good accuracy originally reported with BOF likely resulted from a particularly permissive dataset with low within-class variability. Soundscapemodeling, therefore, may not be the closed case it was once thought to be.
- ANIMAL BIOACOUSTICS
Equal latency contours for bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and California sea lions (Zalophus californianus)a)138(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4932015View Description Hide Description
Loudness perception by non-human animals is difficult to study directly. Previous research efforts have instead focused on estimating loudness perception using simple reaction time (RT) data. These data are used to generate equal latency contours that serve as a proxy for equal loudness contours. To aid the design of auditory weighting functions for marine mammals, equal latency contours were generated using RT data for two marine mammal species that are representative of broader functional hearing groups: the bottlenose dolphin (under water) and California sea lion (in air). In all cases, median RT decreased with increasing tone sound pressure level (SPL). The equal latency contours corresponding to near-threshold SPLs were similar to audiograms for both species. The sea lion contours showed some compression at frequencies below 1 kHz; however, a similar pattern was not apparent in the more variable data for dolphins. Equal latency contours for SPLs greater than approximately 40 dB above threshold diverged from predicted equal loudness contours, likely due to the asymptotic nature of RT at the highest tested SPLs. The results suggest that auditory threshold data, potentially augmented with compression at low frequencies, may provide a useful way forward when designing auditory weighting functions for marine mammals.
Comparison of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) whistles from two areas of western Peninsular Malaysia138(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4934254View Description Hide Description
Differences in the acoustic variables of whistles emitted by Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from two coastal locations along western Peninsular Malaysia were investigated. Duration, frequency, and frequency modulation variables were extracted from and used to characterize recordings of free-ranging humpback dolphins that were made using a broadband towed hydrophone. A total of 960 whistles from Matang Mangroves and 823 whistles from Langkawi Island were used in analyses. The whistles of Malaysian humpback dolphins covered frequencies from 1231 to 27 120 Hz with durations from 0.010–1.575 s. Significant multivariate differences were found in whistles emitted between locations. Significant differences were also found between dolphins of the two locations in their whistle duration, frequency modulation, and all frequency variables except for minimum frequency, which is likely under morphological constraints. The differences in whistles may be related to adaptations to the local acoustic habitat or unique whistles may have developed due to social interactions within each location, or broader scale differences resulting from geographic separation between the locations.
A quantitative acoustic analysis of the vocal repertoire of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)138(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4934268View Description Hide Description
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a highly vocal New World primate species, has emerged in recent years as a promising animal model for studying brain mechanisms underlying perception, vocal production, and cognition. The present study provides a quantitative acoustic analysis of a large number of vocalizations produced by marmosets in a social environment within a captive colony. Previous classifications of the marmoset vocal repertoire were mostly based on qualitative observations. In the present study a variety of vocalizations from individually identified marmosets were sampled and multiple acoustic features of each type of vocalization were measured. Results show that marmosets have a complex vocal repertoire in captivity that consists of multiple vocalization types, including both simple calls and compound calls composed of sequences of simple calls. A detailed quantification of the vocal repertoire of the marmoset can serve as a solid basis for studying the behavioral significance of their vocalizations and is essential for carrying out studies that investigate such properties as perceptual boundaries between call types and among individual callers as well as neural coding mechanisms for vocalizations. It can also serve as the basis for evaluating abnormal vocal behaviors resulting from diseases or genetic manipulations.
Acoustic property reconstruction of a pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps) forehead based on computed tomography imaging138(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4935135View Description Hide Description
Computed tomography(CT) imaging and sound experimental measurements were used to reconstruct the acoustic properties (density, velocity, and impedance) of the forehead tissues of a deceased pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps). The forehead was segmented along the body axis and sectioned into cross section slices, which were further cut into sample pieces for measurements. Hounsfield units (HUs) of the corresponding measured pieces were obtained from CT scans, and regression analyses were conducted to investigate the linear relationships between the tissues' HUs and velocity, and HUs and density. The distributions of the acoustic properties of the head at axial, coronal, and sagittal cross sections were reconstructed, revealing that the nasal passage system was asymmetric and the cornucopia-shaped spermaceti organ was in the right nasal passage, surrounded by tissues and airsacs. A distinct dense theca was discovered in the posterior-dorsal area of the melon, which was characterized by low velocity in the inner core and high velocity in the outer region. Statistical analyses revealed significant differences in density, velocity, and acoustic impedance between all four structures, melon, spermaceti organ,muscle, and connective tissue (p < 0.001). The obtained acoustic properties of the forehead tissues provide important information for understanding the species' bioacousticcharacteristics.
138(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4935387View Description Hide Description
Horseshoe bats emit biosonar pulses through the nostrils and diffract the outgoing ultrasonic pulses with baffles, so-called “noseleaves,” that surround the nostrils. The noseleaves have complex static geometries and can furthermore undergo dynamic shape changes during emission of the biosonar pulses. The posterior noseleaf part, the lancet, has been shown to carry out anterior-posterior flicking motions during biosonar emissions with average lancet tip displacements of about 1 mm. Here, the acoustic effects of the interplay between the lancet furrows and shape change (lancet rotation) on the emission beam were investigated using the animated digital models obtained from the noseleaves of greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum). It was found that forward lancet rotations increase the amount of sound energy allocated to secondary amplitude maxima (sidelobes) in the beampattern, but only in the presence of the furrows. The interaction between static and dynamic features can be readily quantified by roughness (standard deviation about local mean) of the amplitude distribution of the beampatterns. This effect goes beyond the static impact of the furrows on the width of the mainlobe. It could allow the bats to send out their pulses through a sequence of qualitatively different beampatterns.
138(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4935518View Description Hide Description
Observed variations in dolphin acoustic signals may be associated with behavior, social composition, and local differences in habitat features. This study aims at characterizing whistles emitted by the spinner dolphin population occurring in the waters of the main island of the Archipelago of Comoros (Mozambique Channel, Indian Ocean) and to assess factors possibly influencing the acoustic structure of signals. All parameters examined on 953 whistles significantly differed in relation to environmental conditions, group size, and behavior. By mixed model analysis, it was found that only habitat characteristics play a role in the variation of frequency parameters, and exerted on the acoustic structure of whistles stronger influence than socio-behavioral factors. Spinner dolphins occurring in the Comoros archipelago use higher frequencies and show longer signal duration compared to those from the Pacific and the Atlantic. Results suggest that frequency parameters are distinctive of the local population and reflect the habitat use of the species in the area. In conclusion, acoustic measurements may be crucial elements to be included in monitoring programs to identify local peculiarities of dolphins' populations.
Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song unit and phrase repertoire progression on a subarctic feeding ground138(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4935517View Description Hide Description
The songs of the male humpback whales have traditionally been associated with breeding activities at low latitude breeding grounds during winter. This study provides the first detailed analysis of humpback whale songs recorded in the subarctic waters of Iceland using passive acoustic recorders. Recordings were collected during three winter seasons: 2008–2009, 2009–2010, and 2011 during which singing was detected in all seasons. Peak song occurrence was during January–February in all years; this coincides with the timing of the peak breeding season of humpback whales in the Northern hemisphere. A total of 2810 song units from all years were measured and statistically divided into 14 groups, which constructed 25 phrases. The song unit repertoires included stable song unit types that occurred frequently in songs during all years while the occurrence of other song unit types varied more between years. Around 60% of the phrases were conserved between the first two study seasons, while the majority of phrases found during the last study season had not been observed before. This study indicates the importance of a subarctic feeding ground for song progression and song exchange and possibly as an opportunistic mating ground for migrating or overwintering humpback whales.
138(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4935397View Description Hide Description
Each winter gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) breed and calve in Laguna San Ignacio, Mexico, where a robust, yet regulated, whale-watching industry exists. Baseline acoustic environments in LSI's three zones were monitored between 2008 and 2013, in anticipation of a new road being paved that will potentially increase tourist activity to this relatively isolated location. These zones differ in levels of both gray whale usage and tourist activity. Ambient sound level distributions were computed in terms of percentiles of power spectral densities. While these distributions are consistent across years within each zone, inter-zone differences are substantial. The acoustic environment in the upper zone is dominated by snapping shrimp that display a crepuscular cycle. Snapping shrimp also affect the middle zone, but tourist boat transits contribute to noise distributions during daylight hours. The lower zone has three source contributors to its acoustic environment: snapping shrimp, boats, and croaker fish. As suggested from earlier studies, a 300 Hz noise minimum exists in both the middle and lower zones of the lagoon, but not in the upper zone.
- ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS
Theory and investigation of acoustic multiple-input multiple-output systems based on spherical arrays in a room138(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4934555View Description Hide Description
Spatial attributes of room acoustics have been widely studied using microphone and loudspeaker arrays. However, systems that combine both arrays, referred to as multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, have only been studied to a limited degree in this context. These systems can potentially provide a powerful tool for room acousticsanalysis due to the ability to simultaneously control both arrays. This paper offers a theoretical framework for the spatial analysis of enclosed sound fields using a MIMO system comprising spherical loudspeaker and microphone arrays. A system transfer function is formulated in matrix form for free-field conditions, and its properties are studied using tools from linear algebra. The system is shown to have unit-rank, regardless of the array types, and its singular vectors are related to the directions of arrival and radiation at the microphone and loudspeaker arrays, respectively. The formulation is then generalized to apply to rooms, using an image source method. In this case, the rank of the system is related to the number of significant reflections. The paper ends with simulation studies, which support the developed theory, and with an extensive reflection analysis of a room impulse response, using the platform of a MIMO system.
Investigation of auditory distance perception and preferences in concert halls by using virtual acoustics138(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4935388View Description Hide Description
Virtual acoustics with multichannel sound reproduction was used to study auditory distance perception in four concert halls with multiple sound sources on stage. Eight subjects reported apparent auditory distances in five seating positions from 10 to 26 m to the middle of the sources on stage. The distance estimates were collected by absolute distance estimation procedure as well as a free modulus estimation procedure including both within and between halls evaluations. In addition, pairwise preferences were collected for two positions within each hall and for one position between halls. Results reveal that the perception of distance is dependent on the hall acoustics and show how the strength factor G and direct-to-reverberant energy ratio covary in relation to perceptual distances in these halls. The results also indicate that in such large spaces the overestimation of short distances may continue up to and further than 10 m from the sound sources. Preference results show that closer seats were liked more than further ones and that the strength of this preference is associated with the difference in perceptual distances.
- BIOMEDICAL ACOUSTICS
138(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4935392View Description Hide Description
The Naval Medical Research Unit Dayton (NAMRU-D) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, in conjunction with the U.S. Air Force, studied ototoxic effects of JP-8 in rats. NAMRU-D used a multi-chamber whole body exposure facility for up to 96 test animals and 32 control animals at different exposure levels. The objective was to design a noisedelivery system that could provide a white noise source one octave band wide, centered at 8 kHz frequency, delivered from outside the exposure chambers. Sound pressure levels were required to be within ±2 dB at all exposure points within each chamber and within ±2 dB over a 6-h run. Electrodynamic shakers were used to produce input noise in exposure chambers by inducing vibration in chamber plenums. Distribution of sound pressure levels across exposure points was controlled within a ±1.5dB prediction interval (α = 0.05) or better. Stability at a central reference point was controlled over 6-h runs within a ±1 dB prediction interval (α = 0.05) or better. The final system allowed NAMRU-D to delivernoise and whole-body aerosol exposures to multiple animals at different levels simultaneously and study the effects that ototoxins may have on hearing loss.
Adaptive reverberation noise delay estimation for reverberation suppression in dual band ultrasound imaging138(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4935555View Description Hide Description
The behavior of the propagation delays introduced in dual frequency band ultrasound imaging is discussed. In particular, the delay of reverberation noise components is examined. Using a delay corrected subtraction (DCS) method, it is possible to suppress the reverberation noise if the behavior of the propagation delays is known. Here, a signal adaptive estimation for the reverberation delay is introduced and applied through DCS to suppress reverberation noise in a numerically simulated signal. The reverberation reduction is compared to DCS suppression using a simpler delay estimation and shows that a signal based adaptive estimation yields a improved suppression of reverberation noise. The study indicates that the advantage of the adaptive estimation is highest when the medium has changing nonlinearity with depth.