Volume 11, Issue 2, June 2016
Index of content:
- In Focus: SIMS
3D chemical characterization of frozen hydrated hydrogels using ToF-SIMS with argon cluster sputter depth profiling11(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1116/1.4928209View Description Hide Description
Hydrogels have been used extensively in bioengineering as artificial cell culture supports. Investigation of the interrelationship between cellular response to the hydrogel and its chemistry ideally requires methods that allow characterization without labels and can map species in three-dimensional to follow biomolecules adsorbed to, and absorbed into, the open structure before and during culture. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) has the potential to be utilized for through thickness characterization of hydrogels. The authors have established a simple sample preparation procedure to successfully achieve analysis of frozen hydrated hydrogels using ToF-SIMS without the need for dry glove box entry equipment. They demonstrate this on a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) film where a model protein (lysozyme) is incorporated using two methods to demonstrate how protein distribution can be determined. A comparison of lysozyme incorporation is made between the situation where the protein is present in a polymer dip coating solution and where lysozyme is in an aqueous medium in which the film is incubated. It is shown that protonated water clusters H(H2O)n + where n = 5–11 that are indicative of ice are detected through the entire thickness of the pHEMA. The lysozyme distribution through the pHEMA hydrogel films can be determined using the intensity of a characteristic amino acid secondary ion fragment.
Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry of bone—Impact of sample preparation and measurement conditions11(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1116/1.4928211View Description Hide Description
Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) enables the simultaneous detection of organic and inorganic ions and fragments with high mass and spatial resolution. Due to recent technical developments, ToF-SIMS has been increasingly applied in the life sciences where sample preparation plays an eminent role for the quality of the analytical results. This paper focusses on sample preparation of bone tissue and its impact on ToF-SIMS analysis. The analysis of bone is important for the understanding of bone diseases and the development of replacement materials and new drugs for the cure of diseased bone. The main purpose of this paper is to find out which preparation process is best suited for ToF-SIMS analysis of bone tissue in order to obtain reliable and reproducible analytical results. The influence of the embedding process on the different components of bone is evaluated using principal component analysis. It is shown that epoxy resin as well as methacrylate based plastics (Epon and Technovit) as embedding materials do not infiltrate the mineralized tissue and that cut sections are better suited for the ToF-SIMS analysis than ground sections. In case of ground samples, a resin layer is smeared over the sample surface due to the polishing step and overlap of peaks is found. Beside some signals of fatty acids in the negative ion mode, the analysis of native, not embedded samples does not provide any advantage. The influence of bismuth bombardment and O2 flooding on the signal intensity of organic and inorganic fragments due to the variation of the ionization probability is additionally discussed. As C60 sputtering has to be applied to remove the smeared resin layer, its effect especially on the organic fragments of the bone is analyzed and described herein.
11(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1116/1.4929633View Description Hide Description
In this work, four triple negative (TN) cell lines, three ER+ and PR+ receptor positive (RP) cell lines, and one ER+, PR+, and HER2+ cell line were chemically distinguished from one another using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and principal component analysis (PCA). PCA scores separation was observed between the individual cell lines within a given classification (TN and RP) and there were distinctly different trends found in the fatty acid and lipid compositions of the two different classifications. These trends indicated that the RP cell lines separated out based on the carbon chain length of the lipids while the TN cell lines showed separation based on cholesterol-related peaks (in the positive ion data). Both cell types separated out by trends in fatty acid chain length and saturation in the negative ions. These chemical differences may be manifestations of unique metabolic processes within each of the different cell lines. Additionally, the HER2+ cell line was distinguished from three other RP cell types as having a unique distribution of fatty acids including anticorrelation to 18-carbon chain fatty acids. As these cell lines could not be grown in the same growth media, a combination of chemical fixation, rinsing, C60 + presputtering, and selection of cellular regions-of-interest is also presented as a successful method to acquire ToF-SIMS data from cell lines grown in different media.