Vacuum microelectronic devices and vacuum requirements
Scanning electron micrographs of various types of vacuum microelectronic device structures: (a) metal Spindt-type emitter (reprinted from Ref. 26), (b) silicon-post emitter (reprinted from Ref. 37), (c) carbon nanotube based emitter (reprinted from Ref. 38).
Effect of operational mode on device performance. Operating in diode mode vs triode mode irradiates additional device components with electrons, causing e-beam induced desorption, which increases local pressure and degrades emission (reprinted from Ref. 23).
Schematic of two common vacuum microelectronic packaging schemes, using either an exhaust tube pumping technique (left), or integral vacuum sealing (right).
Emission current degradation of molybdenum field emitter arrays due to increasing amounts of oxygen exposure (reprinted from Ref. 39).
Emission current degradation of molybdenum field emitter array due to increasing amounts of argon exposure; note the partial reversibility of current degradation after return to UHV conditions (reprinted from Ref. 40).
Reversible emission current enhancement due to hydrogen exposure (reprinted from Ref. 41).
Emission current stability of carbon nanotube emitters in various ambient gases (reprinted from Ref. 30).
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