(a) and (b) Energy diagrams for electrons in two metals (M1 and M2). (a) Metals are isolated. (b) Metals are connected electrically and charged. : vacuum energy level; : Fermi energy; : work function of metal ; : work function difference between M1 and M2. (c) and (d) Schematic diagrams of SSPM measurement. (c) Electrostatic potential difference and interaction force between a neutral tip and a sample after electron diffusion. (d) External ac voltage with adjustable dc offset, which leads to a vibration being applied to the tip.
Cross-sectional view of the medium.
Topography (left) and CPD (right) images of (a) and (b) DVD-RW disks, which were written by a commercial recorder. The CPD images have been flattened.
Simultaneously acquired images of (a) the topography and (b) the CPD on a disk written by a read∕write disk tester. The CPD image has been flattened.
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