Unintentional doping and compensation effects of carbon in metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition fabricated ZnO thin films
Electric properties (by Hall characterization) of unintentionally doped ZnO films as function of deposition temperature. The ZnO films were deposited with DEZn and flow rates of 1 and (standard cubic centimeter per minute), respectively.
X-ray-diffraction data of ZnO films deposited at (a) with film thickness of and (b) with film thickness of .
X-ray-diffraction data of ZnO films deposited at (a) , (b) , (c) (d) , and (e) . The inset is the plot of areas under the (002) peak and the FWHM of the (002) peak vs deposition temperatures.
SIMS analyses of carbon concentration in ZnO samples. The carbon signal was normalized to the ZnO signal. The lowest profile is taken from an undoped control sample fabricated by sputtering at room temperature. The rest of profiles are carbon concentration taken from nitrogen-doped (solid lines) and undoped (dashed lines) ZnO samples, fabricated by MOCVD with deposition temperature of .
SIMS analyses of carbon (circle) and hydrogen (triangle) concentration on the MOCVD-fabricated ZnO and ZnO:N samples. The ZnO films (dotted lines) were deposited with DEZn and flow rates of 1 and , respectively. The ZnO:N (solid lines) films were deposited with DEZn and NO gas flow rates of 1 and , respectively.
Calculated formation energy of an isolated interstitial carbon (bound with O, dashed lines), a (dashed lines), and a complex in ZnO. The dotted line shows the sum of the formation energies of an interstitial carbon (bound with O) and an isolated . The Zn-rich condition, , and diamond-phase precipitation limits (for nitrogen and carbon chemical potentials) were used in the calculations.
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