Increase in MR vs time for GMR and MTJ junctions. Figure taken from Ref. 14. The numbers refer to references given in Ref. 14.
Schematic of the detectivity vs frequency for several kinds of sensors. Sensors shown with a clear background are total field or scalar magnetometers. Sensors shown with a shaded background are vector magnetometers.
Stack of elements in the chip scale atomic magnetometer. Kitching from NIST Boulder kindly supplied the figure.
(Color) Orientation of the magnetization in the zigzag AMR sensor. Figure taken from Ref. 18.
Magnetoelectric sensor consisting of a piezoelectric material sandwiched between two layers of a magnetostrictive material. Figure supplied by Viehland.
Illustration of the concepts of the MEMS flux concentrator
Picture of the wafer after some of the processing steps. (a) After the gold electrodes and spin valve have been deposited. (b) After the flux concentrator has been deposited. (c) After the DRIE step but before release.
Teeth of the electrostatic comb drive before release. The separation between the teeth is .
Motion of the MEMS structure moving with an amplitude of at the resonant frequency of .
Complete package containing four sensors completed using flip chip packaging.
Sidebands generated by applying a magnetic field at 50 and .
(Color) Comparison of various vector magnetic sensors. The points at represent estimates of the field that we may be able to detect. Units for the axis are magnetic field at .
Comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of different types of magnetic sensors.
Definitions of the terms used in Eq. (2)
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