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Advances in magnetometry through miniaturization
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Increase in MR vs time for GMR and MTJ junctions. Figure taken from Ref. 14. The numbers refer to references given in Ref. 14.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Schematic of the detectivity vs frequency for several kinds of sensors. Sensors shown with a clear background are total field or scalar magnetometers. Sensors shown with a shaded background are vector magnetometers.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Stack of elements in the chip scale atomic magnetometer. Kitching from NIST Boulder kindly supplied the figure.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color) Orientation of the magnetization in the zigzag AMR sensor. Figure taken from Ref. 18.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Magnetoelectric sensor consisting of a piezoelectric material sandwiched between two layers of a magnetostrictive material. Figure supplied by Viehland.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Illustration of the concepts of the MEMS flux concentrator

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Picture of the wafer after some of the processing steps. (a) After the gold electrodes and spin valve have been deposited. (b) After the flux concentrator has been deposited. (c) After the DRIE step but before release.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Teeth of the electrostatic comb drive before release. The separation between the teeth is .

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Motion of the MEMS structure moving with an amplitude of at the resonant frequency of .

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Complete package containing four sensors completed using flip chip packaging.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Sidebands generated by applying a magnetic field at 50 and .

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

(Color) Comparison of various vector magnetic sensors. The points at represent estimates of the field that we may be able to detect. Units for the axis are magnetic field at .


Generic image for table

Comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of different types of magnetic sensors.

Generic image for table

Definitions of the terms used in Eq. (2)


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Scitation: Advances in magnetometry through miniaturization