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Optical second-harmonic generation in thin film systems
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10.1116/1.2990854
/content/avs/journal/jvsta/26/6/10.1116/1.2990854
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvsta/26/6/10.1116/1.2990854

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Definition of the coordinate axes and the polarization geometry. Radiation with the electric field parallel (perpendicular) to the plane of incidence is referred to as polarized. The angles , , and denote the angle of incidence, the polarization angle of the fundamental radiation, and the azimuthal angle, respectively.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Two-layer optical model to describe the propagation of fundamental and SHG radiation. The model consists of a semi-infinite substrate and a film of thickness embedded in vacuum with refractive indices , , and , respectively. SHG is generated in polarized sheets placed in vacuum gaps at the surface and the buried interface . Multiple reflections are displayed schematically for (a) fundamental radiation creating an electric field at the surface, (b) SHG radiation generated at the surface, (c) fundamental radiation creating an electric field at the buried interface, and (d) SHG radiation generated at the buried interface. For clarity, dispersion effects, generally occurring in the film and included in the model, are not shown.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Optical setup to generate and detect SHG as used in the experiments with the Ti:sapphire oscillator and the Ti:sapphire-amplifier-pumped OPA. In the experiments with the Nd:YAG-pumped OPO, a monochromator was used instead of the dispersing Pellin Broca prism.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Polarization dependence of the SHG intensity obtained ex situ from native oxide covered Si(100). Filled (open) circles represent polarized SHG radiation. For clarity the polarized SHG intensity is multiplied by a factor of 40. The polarization angle of the fundamental radiation is varied, where a position of and ( and ) corresponds to polarized fundamental radiation. The solid and dashed lines represent fits to the data using Eq. (4). Data were obtained using the Ti:sapphire oscillator at a SHG photon energy of 3.31 eV and an angle of incidence of .

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Azimuthal dependence of the SHG intensity from native oxide covered Si(100) for polarized fundamental and SHG radiation. At an orientation of the plane of incidence is aligned with the [011] crystal axis. The solid lines represent fits to the data using Eq. (8). Data were obtained ex situ using the Ti:sapphire oscillator at a SHG photon energy of 3.31 eV and an angle of incidence of .

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

SHG intensity as a function of SHG photon energy for H terminated Si(100) at room temperature and at . Data were obtained in high vacuum at an angle of incidence of . The fundamental and SHG radiation were polarized with the fundamental radiation provided by the Ti:sapphire oscillator.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Polarization dependence of the SHG intensity obtained ex situ from a 9 nm thick film deposited on fused silica by rf PECVD. Filled (open) circles represent polarized SHG radiation. The polarization of the fundamental radiation is varied, where a position of and corresponds to polarized fundamental radiation. The solid and dashed lines are fits to the data using Eq. (4). Data were obtained using the Nd:YAG-pumped OPO at a fundamental photon energy of 1.17 eV and an angle of incidence of .

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Azimuthal dependence of the SHG intensity for a 4 nm thick film deposited on fused silica with rf PECVD for (filled circles), (open squares), and (triangles) polarization configurations. Data were obtained using the Nd:YAG-pumped OPO at a fundamental photon energy of 1.17 eV and an angle of incidence of .

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

SHG intensity as a function of the SHG photon energy generated at a 9 nm thick film of deposited by HWCVD on fused silica for polarized fundamental and polarized SHG radiation. The measurement was performed ex situ at an angle of incidence of . The squared linear susceptibility of the as determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements is also given and plotted as a function of photon energy.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

SHG intensity for polarization measured during HWCVD of on fused silica. The fundamental radiation with a photon energy of 1.2 eV was provided by the Nd:YAG-pumped OPO. The solid line represents a simulation of the data using Eq. (27).

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

(a) SHG intensity for polarization as a function of fundamental photon energy of a 1031 nm thick film deposited by rf PECVD on fused silica. Data were obtained ex situ using the Nd:YAG-pumped OPO at an angle of incidence of . The line is a guide to the eye. (b) Simulation of the SHG spectrum of a 1031 nm thick film using Eq. (27) with the assumption that the second-order susceptibility is photon energy independent.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

SHG spectra for H terminated Si(100) and for films with a thickness ranging from 38 to deposited by HWCVD on H terminated Si(100). Data were obtained in situ and at room temperature. The fundamental radiation was provided by the Ti:sapphire oscillator. Both the fundamental and SHG radiation were polarized.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

SHG intensity for two H-Si(100) samples before, during, and after 70 eV -ion bombardment. When the ion bombardment is terminated, one of the samples is dosed with ML (open symbols), while the other sample is not modified deliberately (solid symbols). Data were obtained at polarization with the fundamental radiation of 1.0 eV provided by the Ti:sapphire-amplifier-pumped OPA.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

SHG intensity as a function of the SHG photon energy for H terminated Si(100) prior to -ion bombardment (open diamonds), during bombardment with 1000 eV ions (open circles), and after subsequent ML dosing (closed squares). Data were obtained in situ at polarization with the fundamental radiation provided by the Ti:sapphire oscillator.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

Experimental (symbols) and simulated (solid lines) SHG spectra for H terminated Si(100) (a) during bombardment with 1000 eV ions and (b) after dosing immediately following 1000 eV -ion bombardment. The dashed and dotted lines represent the individual resonances at the buried interface and the surface, respectively.

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

SHG spectra for an 11 nm film on Si(100), (a) as-deposited and (b) after anneal. The solid lines are fits to the data using a superposition of three CP-like resonances. The dotted, dashed, and dot-dashed lines represent the individual resonances at the buried interface between and . Data were obtained ex situ at an angle of incidence of at polarization with the fundamental radiation provided by the Ti:sapphire oscillator.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Overview of the polarization dependence of the surface dipole contributions and the bulk electric quadrupole/magnetic dipole contributions for centrosymmetric media with and surface symmetries. only contributes for anisotropic media (indicated by ). Terms proportional to are only nonzero in a multiple beam geometry. Here the polarization dependence for a thin film geometry with multiple reflections is displayed (indicated by TF).

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/content/avs/journal/jvsta/26/6/10.1116/1.2990854
2008-11-03
2014-04-17
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Optical second-harmonic generation in thin film systems
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvsta/26/6/10.1116/1.2990854
10.1116/1.2990854
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