SEM image of 316L stainless steel plates bombarded by HCPEB with an acceleration voltage of : sample (b) anode-target distance and 1 pulse, sample (c) anode-target distance and 1 pulse, and sample (d) anode-target distance and 30 pulses.
Cross-sectional nanohardness distributions along the depth direction of the untreated sample (a) and the treated ones [(b)–(d)]. To facilitate comparisons, the mean nanohardness (horizontal solid line) and the standard deviation (horizontal dotted lines) of the untreated sample are plotted in (b)–(d). The starting points of the hardness measurement are marked with vertical dotted lines.
Mean nanohardnesses and the corresponding standard deviations of the four samples shown in Fig. 2. The fluctuation magnitude increases with increasing bombardment.
Temperature distribution as functions of depth and radius at time and .
Schematic illustration of the generation of a thermal stress wave via a sublayer transmittance of the radial stress . The background is the temperature field at , simulated with an energy density of .
Radial thermal stress vs depth and radial distance at and .
Radial stress vs time at depth .
Typical optical metallographic surface morphology (a) and cross-sectional EBSD orientation map (b) of an AISI 316L stainless steel sample treated by HCPEB with 5 pulses. A standard color triangle is shown in the right side of the figure. The dark spots in (b) correspond to MnS inclusions.
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