(Color online) Resistivity and TCR values as a function of annealing temperature for films annealed in oxygen atmosphere. The resistivity drops for the 200 and anneals, but starts to increase after the 400 and anneals. (Some data points corresponding to the 10 min. anneals may not be clearly visible since they overlap with the 30 min. anneal data points.)
XRD spectra of the sample deposited at 5% and annealed in oxygen ambient. Peaks corresponding to higher oxides of vanadium become prominent for the 400 and anneals.
Cross-sectional FESEM images of the film deposited at 5% after annealing for at various temperatures in oxygen atmosphere. We can clearly see the platelike structure of has formed after annealing at 400 and .
(Color online) (a)–(d) AFM images of samples annealed in oxygen at the indicated temperatures. The unannealed sample (not shown) has features very similar to the sample. The grain size gradually increases with increasing temperature. The rms roughness also increases from and finally to at . (e)–(g) AFM images of samples annealed in nitrogen at the indicated temperatures. In contrast to the oxygen annealed samples, the grain size remains relatively constant at as the temperature is increased. The rms roughness also remains fairly constant at for all three films.
(Color online) Raman spectra of 5% films as a function of annealing temperature in an oxygen atmosphere. Note the drastic change in the spectra beginning at , correlating with the observed drop in resistivity.
(Color online) Resistivity and TCR values as a function of annealing temperature for films annealed in a nitrogen atmosphere. The film resistivity decreased monotonically with increasing annealing temperatures, but the TCR still remained reasonably good.
(Color online) Raman spectra of 7.5% films as a function of annealing temperature in a nitrogen atmosphere. The as-deposited, , and samples exhibit broad amorphous features. At , the spectrum develops sharper feature characteristics of crystalline .
(Color online) Comparison of TCR and resistivity values for annealed and as-sputtered films. Clearly the annealed films have a better TCR/resistivity combination compared to the as-deposited films.
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