Typical and XPS spectra of films.
X-ray diffraction patterns of films; the diffraction data of powder anatase from standard file are also included for comparison, R in the figure stands for rutile phase.
FTIR spectra of films.
SEM images of films with different : (a) 0, (b) 0.017, (c) 0.038, and (d) 0.144.
(Color online) Transmittance spectra of films with different .
(Color online) Plots of and vs photon energy . The inset shows the dependence of direct and indirect optical gap on .
Photoluminescence spectra of films.
Indirect band-to-band PL peak and its Gaussian fitting.
(Color online) Refractive index (a) and extinction coefficient (b) of films. The inset shows the dependence of the refractive index at 550 nm on .
(Color online) Room-temperature curves of films. The top-left inset is the curve. The bottom-right inset presents the ZFC and FC curves of films.
The lattice constants and grain size of films.
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