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Interface-mediated ultrafast carrier conduction in oxide thin films and superlattices for energy
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10.1116/1.3186616
/content/avs/journal/jvsta/27/5/10.1116/1.3186616
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvsta/27/5/10.1116/1.3186616
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Space charge potentials at a grain boundary in pure and aliovalently doped zirconia. The sign and magnitude of the potential are different in the latter case due to doping with a cation of different valences.20 [Reprinted with permission from S. L. Hwang and I. W. Chen, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 73, 3269 (1990).]

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(a) High-resolution transmission electron microscopy image of a grain boundary in partially stabilized zirconia showing sharp interface. (b) Local compositional profiling indicates enrichment of Y dopant in the vicinity of the grain boundary. [Reprinted with permission from Y. Ikuhara, P. Thavorniti, and T. Sakuma, Acta Mater., 45, 5275 (1997).]

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) Cross-sectional scanning electron micrograph of a solid oxide fuel cell made by Siemens Westinghouse.47 [Reprinted with permission from S. C. Singhal, Solid State Ionics 135, 305 (2000).] (b) Cross-sectional image of microsolid oxide fuel cell fabricated with thin film structures. [Reprinted with permission from A. C. Johnson, B. K. Lai, H. Xiong, and S. Ramanathan, J. Power Sources 186, 252 (2009).]

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(a) Cross-sectional schematic of electrode setup for in-plane measurement. The thin film oxide-ion conductor is grown on an insulating substrate. Electrodes are fabricated on either side using a shadow mask or photolithography. (b) Schematic and optical images of patterned microdevices for in-plane measurement of conductivity. [Reprinted with permission from A. C. Johnson, B. K. Lai, H. Xiong, and S. Ramanthan, J. Power Sources, 186, 252 (2009).]

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Conductivity of epitaxial YSZ thin films as a function of thickness for varying temperatures.70 [Reprinted with permission from I. Kosacki et al., Electrochem. Solid-State Lett., 7, A459 (2004).]

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Ionic conductivity of Gd-doped ceria thin films as a function of temperature for varying thickness. Both the conductivity and activation energy change with film thickness.24 [Reprinted with permission from T. Suzuki, I. Kosacki, and H. U. Anderson, Solid State Ionics, 151, 111 (2002).]

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Conductivity in air of Gd-doped ceria thin films of varying thickness and different thermochemical processing conditions.28 [Reprinted with permission from A. Karthikeyan, M. Tsuchiya, C. L. Chang, and S. Ramanathan, Appl. Phys. Lett., 90, 263108 (2007).]

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Conductivity of Gd-doped ceria thin films measured as a function of oxygen partial pressure and comparison with bulk GDC of similar composition. It is seen that the oxygen partial pressure dependence of conductivity can be tuned over a broad range, indicating changes in the onset of the electrolytic regime by thermochemical processing.28 [Reprinted with permission from A. Karthikeyan, M. Tsuchiya, C. L. Chang, and S. Ramanathan, Appl. Phys. Lett., 90, 263108 (2007).]

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Ionic conductivity of nanoscale Gd-doped ceria thin films as a function of film thickness. The conductivity increases as the film thickness decreases below .60 [Reprinted with permission from H. Huang, T. M. Gur, Y. Saiton, and F. Prinz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 3 (2006).]

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

In-plane conductivity in superlattices as a function of bilayer period. The conductivity increases by nearly three orders of magnitude with respect to the individual layers over the entire range of temperature measured.75 [Reprinted with permission from N. Sata, K. Eberman, K. Eberl, and J. Maier, Nature (London), 408, 946 (2000).]

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Conductivity of crystalline YSZ/ superlattices as a function of bilayer period. Increase in the total conductivity is seen with decreasing period thickness.16 [Reprinted with permission from PCCP Owner Societies, C. Korte et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 10, 4623 (2008)].

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Conductivity of YSZ- superlattices in air as a function of bilayer period. The interlayer is amorphous.14 [Reprinted with permission from A. Karthikeyan and S. Ramanathan, J. Appl. Phys., 104, 124314 (2008).]

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Conductivity of trilayer superlattices in air as a function of temperature.79 [Reprinted with permission from J. Garcia-Barriocanal, A. Rivera-Calzada, M. Varela, Z. Sefrioui, E. Iborra, C. Leon, S. J. Pennycook, and J. Santamaria, Science, 321, 676 (2008).]

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Top and cross-sectional schematic of the test structure that may be used to investigate partial conductivity. In this case, the use of a YSZ blocking layer in series with the nanostructured ion conductor enables determining ionic conductivity. 84 [Reprinted with permission from A. Podpirka and S. Ramanathan, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (unpublished).]

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

Conductivity as a function of oxygen partial pressure for the Hebb–Wagner structure in comparison with single layer of Gd-doped ceria thin film. The onset of electronic conduction leading to increase in conductivity seen in the GDC film is absent in the Hebb–Wagner structure due to the presence of an electron blocking YSZ layer in the series. [Reprinted with permission from A. Podpirka and S. Ramanathan, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (unpublished).]

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2009-07-31
2014-04-24
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Interface-mediated ultrafast carrier conduction in oxide thin films and superlattices for energy
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvsta/27/5/10.1116/1.3186616
10.1116/1.3186616
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