Nanocrystalline cobalt-based films with high thermal stability from a single molecule
Vertically shifted in situ XPS survey scans of films deposited at (a) , (b) , and (c) showing only peaks associated with Co, C, or P.
(Color online) spectrum from a film deposited at and fit using the method outlined in Ref. 43 showing both phosphidic (two smaller curves, both red) and elemental (two larger curves, both blue) components.
(a) XPS depth profile of a film deposited at tracking Co (◼), C (●), and P (▲); (b) a separate depth profile tracking the change in the ratio of Co-bonded C (●) and P (▲) to elemental C and P.
Representative XRD pattern of Co(P) film after deposition and JCPDS standard patterns for hcp Co (solid lines) and fcc Co (dashed lines).
Physically unrealizable strain and grain sizes calculated using the Williamson–Hall equation.
(Color online) Representative XRD pattern of Co(P) film after 3 h annealing at and JCPDS standard patterns for hcp Co (blue) and fcc Co (red) and (green). The patterns for hcp and fcc Co are the same as those shown in Fig. 4, the remaining pattern is P.
XRD pattern of Co foil (a) as received and (b) after 3 h annealing at ; hcp indices are (100), (002), and (101), fcc indices are (111) and (200), and the patterns have been vertically shifted for comparison.
XPS depth profile showing the ratio of carbidic C to graphitic C before (––●––) and after (- -○- -) annealing.
Peaks of high relative intensity in JCPDS standard patterns that are widely separated from hcp Co peaks and absent from XRD spectra.
Average crystallite size calculated from XRD FWHM data for films between 80 and 110 nm.
Increase in crystallite size due to annealing.
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