Combinatorial characterization of transparent conductive properties of Ga-doped ZnO films cosputtered from electron cyclotron resonance and rf magnetron plasma sources
Geometric configuration of deposition apparatus equipped with ECR and rf magnetron sputtering sources.
Thickness distribution of (a) ZnO, (b) , and (c) GZO films through individually operating (a) ECR and (b) rf magnetron sources, and (c) simultaneously operating them, and (d) content distribution estimated from ZnO and thickness. The thickness has been normalized for 1 h deposition and is given in nanometers.
Ga concentration profile at center line of wafer surface measured by XRF and ICP-AES (solid circles) and estimated from thickness distributions in Figs. 2(a) and 2(b) (open circles).
(a) -scan XRD patterns and (b) -scan rocking curves of the (002) diffraction peak at from 330-nm-thick ZnO and GZO films grown on silica glass substrate under same conditions.
-content dependence of (a) resistivity taken from multiple samples deposited at various magnetron powers, (b) carrier concentration (open circles), Hall mobility (closed circles), and resistivity (open squares), and (c) ZnO (002) peak intensity measured with 18 mm square silica glass substrate.
(a) -scan and (b) -scan XRD patterns of GZO films on silica glass substrate with high content.
Changes in optical transmittance spectra when content is varied.
-content dependence of resistivity for GZO films deposited at (open squares), (closed circles), and (open circles) as well as that deposited under flow of 0.5 SCCM at (closed squares).
Temperature dependence of carrier concentration , Hall mobility , and resistivity of GZO film with content of 4 wt %.
-scan rocking curves of the (002) diffraction peak at from 330-nm-thick ZnO and GZO films grown at various temperatures.
Magnet-current dependence of carrier concentration (open circles), Hall mobility (closed circles), and resistivity (open squares) of GZO film.
(a) Model of Ga position in ZnO unit crystal and [(b)–(d)] arrangement of hexagonal units. Units with and without Ga at center are denoted by closed and gray circles.
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