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Effects of temperature and near-substrate plasma density on the structural and electrical properties of dc sputtered germanium thin films
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10.1116/1.3607410
/content/avs/journal/jvsta/29/5/10.1116/1.3607410
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvsta/29/5/10.1116/1.3607410
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Schematic of system used for film depositions and plasma diagnostics.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(a) Design of retarding field energy analyzer. (b) Flat probe design and circuit.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Differentiated RFEA collector current. Circles for external coil current at 10.4 A, squares for external coil current at 0 A. Lines are best fit Gaussians.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Flat probe current–voltage characteristics for different external coil currents. Squares, 0 A; diamonds, 5.4 A; circles, 10.4 A; triangles, 15.6 A. Inset: derivative of a current–voltage characteristic showing the inflection point around −45 V.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Cylindrical probe current–voltage characteristics for different external coil currents. Squares, 0 A; diamonds, 5.4 A; circles, 10.4 A; triangles, 15.6 A. Inset: derivative of a current–voltage characteristic at 0 V and 10.4 A showing the inflection point at plasma potential.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Integrated RFEA peak as a function of external coil current.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Integrated RFEA peak vs ion current inferred from the flat probe. Diamonds, varying external coil current at fixed discharge power of 150 W; squares, varying discharge power (50–200 W) at fixed external coil current of 0 A; triangles, varying discharge power (50–200 W) at a fixed external coil current of 10.4 A.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Average energy of ions inferred from the difference between the RFEA peak voltage and the flat probe floating voltage. Diamonds, varying external coil current at fixed discharge power; squares, varying discharge power at fixed external coil current of 0 A; triangles, varying discharge power at a fixed external coil current of 10.4 A.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Plasma density inferred from the cylindrical probes at x = 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 cm from the substrate plane vs distance and external coil current. The plasma density at x = 0 is inferred from the flat probe current and the Bohm relation. Squares, coil current 0 A; diamonds, 5.2 A; circles, 10.4 A; triangles, 15.6 A.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Plasma potential inferred from the cylindrical probes at x = 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 cm from the substrate plane vs distance and external coil current. The data at x = 0 correspond to the peak of the RFEA data. Squares, coil current 0 A; diamonds, 5.2 A; circles, 10.4 A; triangles, 15.6 A.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Electron temperature inferred from the cylindrical probes at x = 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 cm from the substrate plane vs distance and external coil current. Squares, coil current 0 A; diamonds, 5.2 A; circles, 10.4 A; triangles, 15.6 A.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

X-ray spectra for films deposited as a function of substrate temperature and ion-to-neutral ratio of 0.14. The counts have been normalized to the (220) peak of a germanium powder sample scanned immediately prior to the thin film scan.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Width of (220) peak and crystallite size calculated from the Scherrer formula as a function of substrate temperature. The peak width of the powder sample was used as an estimate of the instrumental broadening.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Raman spectra for films deposited near the amorphous to microcrystalline transition temperature.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

Raman spectra for films deposited above the transition temperature and ion-to-neutral ratio of 0.14.

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

Transmission spectra as a function of temperature for temperatures of 215, 275, 327, and 410 °C. The arrow indicates increasing substrate temperature.

Image of FIG. 17.
FIG. 17.

Resistivity as a function of substrate temperature. Open squares, four-point probe measurements; closed triangles: van der Pauw resistivity measurements.

Image of FIG. 18.
FIG. 18.

Carrier mobility (triangles) and carrier concentration (squares) as a function of substrate temperature from Hall effect and van der Pauw resistivity measurements.

Image of FIG. 19.
FIG. 19.

Seebeck measurement for a film deposited at 327 °C. The slope of the line is 0.229 mV/°C.

Image of FIG. 20.
FIG. 20.

X-ray spectra for films at a substrate temperature of 256 °C (near Tt ) as a function of ion-to-neutral ratio R. The counts have been normalized to the (220) peak of a germanium powder sample scanned immediately prior to the thin film scan.

Image of FIG. 21.
FIG. 21.

Raman spectra at a substrate temperature of 256 °C (near Tt ) as a function of ion-to-neutral ratio.

Image of FIG. 22.
FIG. 22.

Resistivity as a function of ion-to-neutral ratio at substrate temperatures of 256 °C (diamonds) and 327 °C (squares). For the data at 327 °C, the closed squares are measured by the van der Pauw method and the open squares are measured by the four-point probe method.

Image of FIG. 23.
FIG. 23.

X-ray spectra for films at a substrate temperature of 327 °C as a function of ion-to-neutral ratio R. The counts have been normalized to the (220) peak of a germanium powder sample scanned immediately prior to the thin film scan.

Image of FIG. 24.
FIG. 24.

Width of (220) peak and crystallite size calculated from the Scherrer formula as a function of ion-to-neutral ratio at 327 °C.

Image of FIG. 25.
FIG. 25.

Raman spectra at a substrate temperature of 327 °C for several values of ion-to-neutral ratio R = 0.14, 1.9 and 4.4.

Image of FIG. 26.
FIG. 26.

Carrier mobility and carrier concentration as a function of ion-to-neutral ratio from Hall effect and van der Pauw resistivity measurements for films deposited at 327 °C.

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/content/avs/journal/jvsta/29/5/10.1116/1.3607410
2011-08-03
2014-04-17
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Effects of temperature and near-substrate plasma density on the structural and electrical properties of dc sputtered germanium thin films
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvsta/29/5/10.1116/1.3607410
10.1116/1.3607410
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