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Kelvin probe force microscopy-based characterization techniques applied for electrostatic MEMS/NEMS devices and bare dielectric films to investigate the dielectric and substrate charging phenomena
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10.1116/1.3611004
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    Affiliations:
    1 Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio- and Nanotechnology & Biomimetics (NLBB) Laboratory, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Laboratoire d’Analyse et d’Architectures des Systèmes (LAAS), 7 avenue du colonel Roche, F-31077 Toulouse, France, and Université de Toulouse, UPS, INSA, INP, ISAE, Laboratoire d’Analyse et d’Architectures des Systèmes (LAAS), F-31077 Toulouse, France
    2 Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio- and Nanotechnology & Biomimetics (NLBB) Laboratory, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    3 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Laboratoire d’Analyse et d’Architectures des Systèmes (LAAS), 7 avenue du colonel Roche, F-31077 Toulouse, France, and Université de Toulouse, UPS, INSA, INP, ISAE, Laboratoire d’Analyse et d’Architectures des Systèmes (LAAS), F-31077 Toulouse, France
    a) Electronic mail: usama.zaghloul@laas.fr
    b) Electronic mail: bhushan.2@osu.edu
    c) Electronic mail: ppons@laas.fr
    J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 29, 051101 (2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1116/1.3611004
/content/avs/journal/jvsta/29/5/10.1116/1.3611004
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvsta/29/5/10.1116/1.3611004

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) MEMS switch used for the KPFM-MEMS experiments (Ref. 36): (a) before removing the suspended Au bridge and (b) after removing the bridge.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

KPFM-TF technique: (a) charge injection in tapping mode over the dielectric surface and (b) the resulting surface potential profile represented by Us and FWHM.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) Vertical cross section of a capacitive RF MEMS switch fabricated on silicon substrate and showing the dielectric layer deposited over metal layer and directly over silicon; (b) the layer structure of the investigated samples by the KPFM-TF technique.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) Impact of the AFM tip on the charge injection and collection processes.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) Sample of the KPFM-MEMS results: (a) the surface potential map of the scanned area over the charged SiN x surface and (b) the corresponding optical image for the suspended Au bridge over the same area.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) (a) Example of the extracted surface potential data with time as a function of the position over the dielectric surface, and (b) the surface potential decay as a function of time at one of the examined cross sections.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) Analysis of surface potential decay as a function of position: (a) the KPFM-MEMS potential map indicating the locations of cross sections A and B, the decay time constant, τ, and stretch factor, β, calculated as a function of position at (b) cross section A and (c) cross section B.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Color online) Physical characterization data for different samples: (a) FT-IR spectra of HF-Si SiN x films with different thicknesses, (b) FT-IR spectra of HF vs LF SiN x films with 200 nm thickness, and (c) the N/Si ratio from XPS and the N–H/Si–H ratio from FT-IR for HF and LF films with different thicknesses.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

XPS depth profile for HF-Si and LF-Si samples with 200 nm thickness.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(Color online) Example of KPFM-TF surface potential maps for (a) positive, and (b) negative charge injection, Tp  = 1 s.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Effect of electric field intensity, E, applied during the charge injection on the induced surface potential amplitude, Us , and distribution, FWHM, for HF-Si samples with different film thicknesses, Tp  = 1 s.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

(Color online) Surface potential decay with time measured for (a) HF-Si sample with 300 nm film thickness under different electric field intensities, E, and (b) HF-Si samples with different film thicknesses under the same applied electric field intensity 140 V/μm, Tp  = 1 s.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Summary of the decay time constant, τ, and stretch factor, β, calculated for HF-Si samples with different film thicknesses and under different electric field intensities, E (Tp  = 1 s).

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

(Color online) Influence of the SiN x deposition conditions on the charging/discharging processes: (a) the induced surface potential amplitude, Us , and distribution, FWHM, for HF-Si and LF-Si samples with different film thicknesses, and (b) the decay time constant, τ, and stretch factor, β, calculated from surface potential decay of the same samples for charges which have been injected under different electric field intensity, Tp  = 1 s.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

(Color online) Impact of bias polarity used during the charge injection step on charging/discharging processes: (a) the induced surface potential amplitude, Us , and distribution, FWHM, for HF-Si samples with different film thicknesses, and (b) the decay time constant, τ, and stretch factor, β, calculated for HF-Si and LF-Si samples with 200 nm film thickness for charges which have been injected using both the positive and negative bias, Tp  = 1 s.

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

(Color online) Charging and discharging processes in SiN x films deposited over silicon substrates vs over evaporated Au layers: (a) the surface potential amplitude, Us , and distribution, FWHM, for HF-Si and HF-Evap Au samples, for positive Up (left) and negative Up (right), and (b) the decay time constant, τ, and stretch factor, β, calculated for the HF-Evap Au, HF-Si, LF-Evap Au, and LF-Si samples with different film thicknesses charged using positive Up (Tp  = 1 s).

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

PECVD deposition conditions for LF and HF SiN x samples.

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

Surface and bulk quantification by XPS (at.%) for the HF-Si and LF-Si samples (source ray Al or Mg monochromator, Ep  = 20 eV, correction Scofield).

Generic image for table
TABLE III.

FT-IR absorptions for both HF and LF SiN x films.

Generic image for table
TABLE IV.

Relative intensity of Si–H and N–H extracted from FT-IR spectra for both HF and LF SiN x films, the N–H/Si–H ratio is also shown.

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/content/avs/journal/jvsta/29/5/10.1116/1.3611004
2011-08-11
2014-04-19
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Kelvin probe force microscopy-based characterization techniques applied for electrostatic MEMS/NEMS devices and bare dielectric films to investigate the dielectric and substrate charging phenomena
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvsta/29/5/10.1116/1.3611004
10.1116/1.3611004
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