(a) XPS survey spectrum of undoped TiO2 surface with Ti, O, C, and substrate peaks labeled and (b) comparison between C 1s peak prior to and after Ar ion sputtering.
Room temperature XRD spectra obtained with a Cu Kα1 primary x-ray beam for (a) 100 nm TiO2/20 min anneal, (b) 100 nm TiO2/24 h anneal, and (c) 300 nm TiO2/20 min anneal with corresponding cross-sectional SEM images.
Temperature-dependent XRD spectra obtained with a Cu Kα primary x-ray beam for 100 nm TiO2 where a scan was acquired instantaneously after ramping to 550 °C (45 °C/min) and then once per hour while at 550 °C (1 h, 19 h shown here). Peak intensity and area change minimally after the instantaneous scan at 550 °C.
Average crystallite size obtained by room temperature XRD peak fitting vs (a) film thickness and (b) annealing time at 550 °C (100 nm TiO2); also, bulk density obtained from XRR spectra fitting vs (c) film thickness for 20 min annealing time at 550 °C, (d) film thickness for 24 h annealing time at 550 °C, and (e) annealing time at 550 °C (100 nm TiO2).
Nd vs film thickness for (a) anatase TiO2 annealed at 550 °C for 20 min and (b) anatase TiO2 annealed at 550 °C for 24 h. Data for e-beam evaporated anatase TiO2 from Ref. 21 are shown in (b) for purposes of comparison. Nd values and corresponding error bars were obtained by averaging three distinct data sets acquired 1 week apart. All samples were stored in dark.
Nd vs annealing time at 550 °C for 100 nm anatase TiO2. Nd values and corresponding error bars were obtained by averaging two distinct data sets acquired 1 week apart. All samples were stored in dark.
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