(Color online) Pulse dc profile that was used to deposit VO x thin films. The frequency of the pulse is 20 kHz.
(Color online) Variation of cathode current as a function of (a) oxygen percentage and (b) total gas flow.
(Color online) X-ray diffraction spectra of films deposited at (a) 5% O2 at various flow rates and (b) 18 sccm at various oxygen percentages. Peaks that are denoted with an asterisk (*) are from substrate.
Cross-sectional FESEM images of samples deposited at 5% O2 at different flow rates (a) 31 sccm, (b) 65 sccm, and (c) 90 sccm.
(Color online) Raman spectra of samples deposited at 5% O2 with variable total flow rates along forward and reverse paths of the cathode current hysteresis curve. All spectra were normalized with respect to the low frequency peak intensity for comparison purposes.
(Color online) Resistivity of the VO x films as a function of (a) total flow rates and (b) oxygen percentages.
(Color online) Temperature coefficient of resistance of the VO x films as a function of (a) total flow rates and (b) oxygen percentages.
(Color online) Dependence of resistivity on cathode current in the pulse dc sputtering. Linear dependence of resistivity (region 2) on cathode current in these films can be noticed between metallic (region 1) and oxidized (region 3) regimes.
(Color online) Meyer–Neldel relation in the VO x samples deposited at (a) fixed total flow rate (18 sccm) and (b) fixed oxygen percentage (5%).
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